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Chapter 10: Centralization of Power (pp. 108-117), this is p. 116
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In addition to expulsion from the party (the most severe form of party discipline--excepting bodily harm), techniques of discipline can include the denial of rights normally accorded other members of equal status, such as participating in party caucuses, receipt of party communications, access to party resources, and removal from party office. Although control over nomination for party candidacy constitutes an important technique of party discipline, it is not included within this variable because of its previous inclusion in BV903. All other techniques of discipline available within a party to induce conformity on the party of governmental officials and candidates for government office are included in the concept.

Operational Definition. The higher the code, the more centralized the administration of discipline.


Either there are no discernible techniques of discipline to be administered to party members or responsibility for administering discipline is diffused throughout the party, with little or no structure imposed on this aspect of party activity.


Local organizations--defined as constituency/municipal/commune/county organs or lower--administer major disciplinary techniques.


Regional organizations administer major disciplinary techniques; an independent disciplinary tribunal or organ exists for disciplinary purposes, and it acts independently of the national organ.


The national parliamentary party organization administers the major disciplinary techniques.


The executive committee, party council, or party leader administers the major disciplinary techniques.

TABLE 10.7a: Mid 1950s: BV9.07 Administering Discipline

TABLE 10.7b: Early 1960s: BV9.07 Administering Discipline

Basic Variable 9.08: Leadership Concentration

Duverger notes two facts that "have dominated the evolution of political parties since the beginning of the century: the increase in the authority of the leaders and the tendency toward personal forms of authority" (1963, p. 168). In the most extreme situation, "The leader is omniscient, omnipotent, infallible, and infinitely good and wise: every word that falls from his mouth is true; every wish emanating from him is party law" (1963, p. 182). Although it does not necessarily follow that power is more centralized in a party with few leaders rather than many, the fewer the number of individuals involved in party decision making, the more conducive the conditions for centralization of power.

"Leadership concentration" refers to the number of individuals who constitute the top party hierarchy and who are regarded as key decision makers within the par-

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