Path: Janda: Political Parties, Home Page > Part 1: Table of Contents > Chapter 10
Chapter 10: Centralization of Power (pp. 108-117), this is p. 112
(you can navigate to other pages by clicking on page numbers below)
p. 108
p. 109
p. 110
p. 111
p. 113
p. 114
p. 115
p. 116
p. 117

TABLE 10.3a: Mid 1950s: BV9.03 Selecting Parliamentary Candidates

TABLE 10.3b: Early 1960s: BV9.03 Selecting Parliamentary Candidates

collection and allocation of funds may be diffused throughout the entire organization, so that virtually all levels participate in a helter-skelter fashion. This lack of structure for allocating funds is thought to provide for complete decentralization of power, even more than the situation which obtains when the collection and allocation of funds are prime responsibilities of the local organizations.

Operational Definition. This scale incorporates a number of combinations of levels of party organization in the collection and allocation of funds. The higher the level at which the funds are both collected and distributed, the greater the centralization of power in the party. The highest level applicable was recorded.


Responsibility for collecting and allocating funds is diffused throughout the party; little or no structure is imposed on this aspect of party activity.


Funds are collected and allocated primarily by local organizations defined as constituency/county/ municipal/commune level or lower.


Funds are collected primarily at the local level, but large amounts are transmitted upward for distribution by either the regional (state) or national organizations .


Funds are collected by all levels of the organization but are transferred to the regional level for allocation .


Funds are collected primarily at the regional level and allocated by regional organizations.


Funds are collected at all levels of the party, but large amounts are transferred to the national organization for allocation, or the national organ collects most but local organs collect a significant amount.


Funds are collected primarily by the national organization, which also exercises responsibility for allocating funds.

Coding Results. Few parties divulge information concerning the collection and allocation of funds that completely satisfies the need for coding BV904. In about half the cases, the coders felt that they had a sufficient grasp of party practice to venture coding this variable; in the other half, they refrained from hazarding any guess at all. Although the means for AC904 (given in Tables 10.4a and 10.4b) attest to a relatively low level of confidence in estimating party practice on this variable, no relationship emerged between BV904 and AC904. Concerning the half of our parties that were evaluated for allocating funds, there were widely different patterns. A few parties were tagged 0 to indicate a total lack of structure in fund raising, but none drew code 1, which signifies both local collection and allocation of funds. If funds were collected locally, the universal practice was to shunt them upward for allocation (code 2), and this pattern was observed in about 30 percent of the parties. Comparable percentages of the parties fixed responsibility for collecting and allocating funds at the national level (code 6), which was assumed to be most conducive to the centralization of power.

Basic Variable 9.05: Formulating Policy*

"The attempt to create and exploit issues of public policy," writes Schattschneider (1942, p. 136), "involves leadership, discipline, and centralization." The

*This section was drafted by Gilbert Rotkin.

go to page 113