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former colonies, there can be several such colonial relationships confronting parties in the colonizing country: France with respect to Tunisia, France with respect to Indo-China, and so forth. Party policy toward colonialism can be contradictory--depending on the circumstances surrounding these various colonial relationships. Although there may be no such thing as a "general" position on colonialism for given parties, particular colonial relationships become more salient at certain times, and judgments of the anticolonial stances of such parties must balance such policy complications.

In recent and current international politics, the propaganda value of terms like "colonialism" and "imperialism" are so great that they elicit policy positions from parties in nations that have not been involved in any significant colonial relationships at all or perhaps none with significant impact for politics during our time period. In these instances, we acknowledge and record such explicit policy positions in our scoring. But, simultaneously, we have tried to avoid the "automatic" scoring of parties on this issue according to their public positions on anticolonialism without first determining whether their nation is implicated in any actual colonial relationships and then determining the parties' position on the actual situation. For this variable, when cases of "program" and "practice" disagree, "practice" is favored over "program" in scoring.

Operational Definition. "Anticolonialism, " like the previous variable, "East/West alignment," is not interpretable for scoring along a "left-right" continuum on the basis of increase or decrease in governmental activity. We have simply established that anticolonial positions be assigned positive or leftist scores. With this amendment, the same scoring matrix applies, using the basic pro-con scale points in Table 6.9. Note that researchers coded parties on this variable after first determining the nation's status in possible colonial relationships as subordinate or superior. They then chose the appropriate code from those under the corresponding heading.

TABLE 6.9: Scheme for Coding Anticolonialism

Subordinate Position
Superior Position

Advocates complete independence of foreign control immediately; rejects continued or future cooperation with any superior foreign country; urges expropriating foreign investments without compensation.


Advocates immediate withdrawal of forces from colony and preparations for granting complete independence; accepts expropriation of investments without threatening sanctions for compensation.

Advocates moving toward complete independence, but accepts some delay in accomplishing that end; does not advocate disruption of relations with superior country; urges acquiring foreign investments with compensation.


Advocates eventual independent status for nation, but proposes some period of training and preparation for this end; willing to negotiate the nationalization of investments with compensation.

Advocates remaining in some sort of community with the superior country but with a (new) status as a self-governing member; urges a reduction in foreign influences in the economy.


Advocates granting self-government but insists on some form of continued political relationship, perhaps ensuring preferential treatment in trade or other economic ties; use for maintenance of membership in the British Commonwealth.

Includes ambiguous or contradictory positions; for parties in nations . . . .


. . . . that are not involved in colonial relationships.

Advocates remaining within a political community with the superior country, insisting only upon control of domestic politics, with foreign relations and defense the responsibility of the superior country; accepts foreign investments.


Advocates a measure of self-government, especially for domestic politics, but insists on control of foreign relations and the armed forces; investments in the country to be protected and close economic ties perpetuated.

Advocates status of a political state within a federal system, with representation in the federal government, empowered to intervene in domestic affairs; encourages foreign investments.


Advocates incorporating the colony into the mother country, with equal political rights-often a federal solution but not necessarily; investments, of course, are protected and increased.

Advocates status as an administrative subdivision of the superior country, accepting political rule by the superior country without insisting on participating in its decisions; often the status quo situation in colonial dependencies.


Advocates retaining the colonies as colonies, with perhaps some token increases in political rights but not enough to challenge the administration of the colony.

Coding Results. The means for BV508 in Tables 6.10a and 6.l0b put the average party on the anticolonial side of the issue with party positions becoming

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