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Chapter 6: Issue Orientation (pp. 53-77), this is p. 56
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Favors government ownership; advocates government ownership of some basic industries but not all; advocates acquiring some industry not currently under government ownership.


Accepts some government ownership but mainly favors more government regulation; advocates active regulation of production and marketing activities of basic industries; advocates stronger regulation.


Includes ambiguous or contradictory positions


Accepts some government ownership; opposes ownership spreading to all basic industries; opposes government acquisition of a given industry not under government ownership; accepts current government regulations.


Opposes government ownership; opposes ownership in principle for any basic industry; advocates returning a given government-owned industry to private ownership; advocates weaker regulations


Strongly opposes government ownership; opposes even government regulation of production and marketing activities of industries other than minimal requirements for health, safety, and honesty; urges repeal of current regulations.

Coding Results. The average party in our study came out somewhat on the leftist side of our scale for "government ownership of the means of production." This is confirmed in the positive means for BV501 as reported in Tables 6.2a and 6.2b (BV501). Perhaps surprisingly, parties in the first half of our period were slightly more leftist than those in the second half. While we were able to score about 90 percent of our parties for BV501, we also failed to score almost 10 percent. Those that were scored were apt to be coded with a lower level of confidence, as can be seen in the relatively low means for AC501. The correlation between BV501 and AC501, however, was insignificant.

TABLE 6.2a: Mid 1950s: BV5.01 Ownership of the Means of Production

TABLE 6.2b: Early 1960s: BV5.01 Ownership of the Means of Production

Basic Variable 5.02: Government Role in Economic Planning*

The rate of economic growth as an object of concern throughout the world has generated intense controversy in many countries over the effect on economic development of state economic planning versus decentralized entrepreneurship. The economist Paul Baran has described how the idea of collective effort, which advances the interests of society in general over the interests of the selected few (1957, p. 97), has become the prevailing point of view in much of the world. Yet the desire to achieve dramatic increases in the standard of living, as well as to maximize the public good through collective direction of the segmental development of the economy, must be balanced against the inevitable threat to political liberties implicit in the accretion of governmental power. The "economic planning" variable attempts to assess a party's response to this apparent dilemma.

*This section was drafted by Gilbert Rotkin.

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