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ation of church property and/or official discouragement of religious practice at one extreme to a desire to establish a state religion at the other. The latter orthodoxy may include hostile excesses against nonfavored religions which should not be confused with a position of general anticlericalism. Intermediate categories stress by degree the party's attitude toward state support, through assorted devices, of the instrumentalities of the church.

Operational Definition. Parties are coded via the usual matrix in accordance with their favoritism or opposition toward secularization or society.



Advocates expropriation of church property and/or official discouragement of religious practice.



Advocates abolition of parochial educational systems or punitive (i.e., at unusually high rates) taxation of church property.



Advocates removal of state aid to parochial schools, clergy, or church operations or taxation of church property at nonpunitive rates.



Includes ambiguous or contradictory positions.



Takes generally benevolent attitude toward religion; advocates exemption of church property from taxation.



Advocates state monetary support of parochial schools, clergy, or church operations



Advocates establishment of a state religion; imposes a system of laws based on religious prescription.

Coding Results. Our success in scoring parties on "secularization of society" was similar to that for "social welfare." Having applied our codes to nearly 75 percent of the parties, we find the average party to stand slightly to the rightist side of this issue, thus opposing the radical separation of church from state. Parties post-1957 are apt to be even more firmly in opposition to secularization, as disclosed by the larger negative mean for BV505 in Tables 6.6a and 6.6b for the second part of the period. There was an insignificant correlation between BV505 and AC505.

TABLE 6.6a: Mid 1950s: BV5.05 Secularization of Society

TABLE 6.6b: Early 1960s: BV5.05 Secularization of Society

Basic Variable 5.06: Support of the Military

The military, in addition to their task of securing the national interest, independence, and integrity, may contribute toward the creation or perpetuation of a favorable national image. In developing countries, the armed forces tend to be valued for their role in the process of modernization through training, construction, and, most importantly, their reliance on rational methods and modern technology. In advanced countries, the military establishment is generally prized as both a vehicle to national prestige and a vital factor in the calculus of international power. Against these functional properties, however, every state must weigh the dysfunctional consequences of the diversion of limited resources from

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