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Chapter 7: Goal Orientation (pp. 78-90), this is p. 86
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TABLE 7.6a: Mid 1950s: BV6.33 Passing Resolutions

TABLE 7.6b: Early 1950s: BV6.33 Passing Resolutions

TABLE 7.7a: Mid 1950s: BV6.34 Issuing Position Papers

TABLE 7.7b: Early 1950s: BV6.34 Issuing Position Papers

cides with the absence of the activity itself, then one can conclude that many of the parties that were not coded because of an absence of information should have been coded instead as 0. This interpretation implies that we are probably systematically overestimating the incidence of party performance of these activities--as reflected in our mean values for BV631 through BV635--because we have omitted from coding many of the parties that would have been scored 0 if only the writers had bothered to mention that the party did not perform the act. The net effect of all this is that we are more certain when a party did something than when it did not.

Basic Variables 6.41-6.44: Allying with Other Parties

Variables 6.41 through 6.44 correspond to arrangements which a party might negotiate with other parties for mutual benefit. These alliances may assume the form of


Electoral agreements for legislative and local elections


Legislative blocs


Cabinet coalitions (in parliamentary government)


Supporting common candidate for presidential elections

The status of these variables within the study is comparable to that of the preceding set, "propagandizing ideas and programs," and the argument therein applies here. Parties that pursue tactics of "allying with other parties" may be guided by any or all strategies within the goal orientation cluster. Therefore these again are viewed as "indirect" tactics in the sense that they can serve the diverse strategies of widely different parties.

Operational Definition. The same three-level measure, discussed under the operational definition for BV601 through BV605, is used to express the frequency with which the party engages in each form of cooperative activity:


Party never or virtually never engages in the activity. Used also if literature does not specifically state that the party does not engage in the activity but discussion of the activity is conspicuous by its absence.


Party occasionally performs the activity but it is not considered to be a common practice of the party.


Party frequently performs the activity which is considered to be common practice for the party.

Coding Results. BV641 through BV644 constitute the last group of variables for which coding was prema-

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