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Chapter 7: Goal Orientation (pp. 78-90), this is p. 82
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TABLE 7.2a: MID 1950S: BV6.10 Restricting Competition in the Electoral Process

TABLE 7.2b: EARLY 1960S: BV6.10 Restricting Competition in the Electoral Process

by half steps to accommodate the creative strategies employed by some parties in our study. This accounts for the fractional scores in the table. Our coding appears to involve no systematic bias with the quality of the data, for there is no significant correlation between BV610 and AC610.

Basic Variables 6.11-6.16: Direct Tactics of Restricting Competition

In line with our general approach to variables in the goal orientation cluster, variables 6.11 through 6.16 pertain to specific party activities that can be classified for their likely usage as direct tactics under a pure strategy of restricting party competition, measured by BV610. These direct tactic variables are


Interfering with opposition advertising: destroying signs, jamming broadcasts


Harassing opposition party workers: threatening violence, imprisonment


Harassing opposition candidates: threatening violence, imprisonment


Harassing opposition voters: purchasing votes.


Falsifying vote reports


Coopting political opponents into cooperation instead of competition

Operational Definition. The variables are operationalized identically as BV601 through BV615, namely, according to this coding scheme:


Party never or virtually never engages in the activity. Used also if literature does not specifically state that the party does not engage in the activity but discussion of the activity is conspicuous by its absence.


Party occasionally performs the activity but it is not considered to be a common practice of the party.


Party frequently performs the activity which is considered to be common practice for the party.

Coding Results. As discussed in detail under "coding results" for BV601 through BV605, we had to cease coding some of the variables in our conceptual framework due to lack of resources. Unfortunately, BV611 through BV616 were also victims of our economy drive. Although we coded in the neighborhood of 20 percent of our parties on these variables, the data base was too small to warrant reporting summary statistics, which might have led to unjustifiable inferences about the universe of parties.2

Basic Variable 6.20: Subverting the Political System

A party may pursue the goal of placing its avowed representatives in government positions through a strategy of "subverting the political system," which might result either in seizing government positions through force or acceding to power in the ensuing chaotic politics. This is one of three possible "pure" strategies that a party might follow, the other two being handled by variable 6.00, "open competition in the electoral process," and variable 6.10, "restricting party competition." The relationship of these strategies to one another is described in the conceptual definition of variable 6.00.

The presumption behind this strategy is that it is used by a nongovernment party, although it is conceivable to think of its being used by a party in government to consolidate its power. Whether or not this conceptual possibility occurs empirically must be determined by analyzing the data. In general, this strategy might be thought of as the counterpart of "restricting party competi-

2. Codes for BV611 to BV616 are, however, available in the data set distributed by the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research.

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