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Chapter 8: Autonomy (pp. 91-97), this is p. 97
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receiving financial support, which is handled under variable 7.01--can constitute constraints impinging upon party autonomy.

Linkages between an international party organization or foreign government and a national affiliate can range widely between the extremes of autonomy and dependence. A national affiliate that limits its relationship with the international organization to attending meetings, exchanging information, and perhaps contributing some small amount to the support of the international secretariat surrenders little of its autonomy. On the other hand, a national affiliate that is created on initiative of the outside organization and that accepts its leadership can claim very little freedom of action.

Operational Definition. This scale refers to types of foreign relations; the higher the value, the more autonomous the party.


Complete dependence. National party created on initiative of international organization; accepts international leadership in general.


Dependent. Party's links with international organization are strong, but the chain is far from perfect; national leaders have occasionally departed from international policy.


Some dependence. Party sends representatives to international meetings and generally adheres to international policy, but international organization has relatively little influence over policy making within the national party.


Virtual independence. National party is affiliated with international organization, but association is limited mainly to attending meetings, exchanging information, and perhaps supporting the international organization financially.


Complete autonomy. Party is not affiliated with any international organization.

Coding Results. Only a few parties could not be coded on their "relations with foreign organizations," BV705. Our level of confidence in assigning these codes was often rather low, however, as indicated by the means for AC705 in Tables 8.7a and 8.7b. Our AC codes, which were unrelated to the variable codes, were generally low because of the lack of attention given the party's international links in the literature. As the distributions in the tables make clear, some form of relationship with parties in other countries is shared by almost half the parties. This association is usually only nominal (code 4), as is the case with most "Liberal" and some "Christian Democratic" parties during our period. Most "Socialist" parties are somewhat more active in their international relations (code 3). By and large, only the "Communist" parties showed enough international solidarity to be coded at the low points of autonomy on this scale.

TABLE 8.7a: Mid 1950s: BV7.05 Relations with Domestic Parties

TABLE 8.7b: Early 1960s: BV7.05 Relations with Domestic Parties

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