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Analysis Programs and References
The years have seen content analysis programs come and
go. Many earlier ones have shown considerable staying power.
Here I've listed some that I know and others that intrigue
me. Most, but not all, are for Windows, and a few are free.
I've tried to present the most general sites first. Many of
these sources direct users to computer programs that
generate "concordances" of important words, often referred
to as KWIC programs. This type of analysis is so useful in
political research that I isolate some KWIC sites from the
pack. Go HERE for KWIC programs.
to sites for content analysis software
- This service is provided
by some dedicated souls at Georgia State University. It
provides links to web sites where one can find
information (often including purchasing information)
regarding content analysis software as well as other
types of software that are often utilized by content
Content Analysis Guidebook Online
- Kimberly Neuendorf
teaches in the Communication Department at Cleveland
State University. She prepared this extrordinarily
helpful web site to accompany her book, The Content
Analysis Guidebook (2001).
Evans' Content Analysis Resources
- William Evans is Director of the Center for Creative
Media at the University of Alabama whose research
interests include computer-supported content analysis.
Though its home page is not well-designed, this site can
direct you to a LOT of interesting material.
Text Analysis Software
- The Electronic Text Center at the University of
Virginia Library is deeply involved in text digitizing
and analysis. The Center combines an on-line archive of
tens of thousands of SGML and XML-encoded electronic
texts and images with a library service that offers
hardware and software suitable for the creation and
analysis of text. This link directs users to available
Study of Dreams
- Don't be put off by the
title. This site deals more generally with content
analysis with these links:
- More about content analysis
- Information for people doing research projects or
- Non-scientific info, for those not interested in
- The vendor says that this Windows program reads any
text and summarizes its main ideas; it needs no precoding
and makes no linguistic assumptions.
One of the leading programs in the field, it is pricey
($595) but there is a $49 student version.
Klein's Text Analysis Info
- Harold Klein does "Social Science Consulting" in
Rudolstadt, Germany. He is a frrequent participant in
content analysis list serve exchanges, and his site is
very helpful. Note that Klein says that INTEXT, a DOS
program, is now in the public domain. You can arrange to
order it yourself.
- This site takes you to TextQuest, the Windows version
of INTEXT. Note that this cost 100 Eurodollars, which is
about $100 US dollars.
- Roderick Hart on the Speech faculty at the University
of Texas devised Diction many years ago for mainframe
computers. DICTION 5.0, now a Windows program, determines
the tone of a verbal message and searches a passage for
five general features--such as certainty, activity,
optimism, commonality, and realism. He used Diction in
his 1984 book, Verbal Style of the
- The General
- Devised in the early 1960s by Philip Stone and
associates, the General Inquirer launched the era of
computerized content analysis. I am delighted to report
that there is now an internet Java version of the
program. I fed it a portion of President Clinton's 1997
Inaugural Address and produced an analysis! But note that
the General Inquirer, like Hart's Diction program,
analyzes style more than content.
Contextual Content Analysis
- This is a product of CL
Research, not the University of Minnesota. CL Research
develops computational lexicons from machine-readable
dictionaries by parsing and processing dictionary
definitions, with particular focus on their use in
natural language processing applications such as
word-sense disambiguation, discourse analysis,
question-answering, and content analysis.
Content Analysis Site, by Mark Miller
- VBPro is a popular
set of program with its own discussion list server.
Although the programs run under DOS (not Windows),
they are menu driven and come with user guides. All
output is in ASCII format compatible with most word
processors and statistical packages. The programs
include procedures to:
- help prepare and
clean text for futher analysis.
- create lists of words
in a file along with their frequency in alphabetical
order or in descending order of frequency.
- find and tag key
words and phrases in context: sentence, paragraph, or
user defined case (case context is usually news story
in my work).
- code various units
(sentence, paragraph, or user defined case) for
frequency or presence/absence of categories of
selected words and phrases.
- provide the
coordinates for mapping terms in a multidimensional
space in which the proximities are indicative of the
degree to which terms co-occur.
Content Analysis & Text-Mining Module
- WordStat is designed
to work with the statistical and "data mining" Windows
package, SimStat. Its web site lists many features,
- Analyses text stored in
several records of a data file.
- Performs analyses on
alphanumeric fields containing short textual information
(up to 255 characters) such as responses to open ended
questions, titles, descriptions, etc. as well as on
longer texts stored in memo fields (up to about 64K of
- Optional exclusion of
pronouns, conjunctions, etc, by the use of user-defined
- Categorization of words
or phrases using existing or user-defined dictionaries.
- Word and phrase
substitution and scoring using wildcards and integer
- Frequency analysis on
words, phrases, derived categories or concepts, or
user-defined codes entered manually within a
SPSS product for text analysis
- TextSmart is an
intriguing program, bought by SPSS, that does statistical
analysis with words, primarily short amounts of text such
as responses to open-ended questions in surveys. I own
the program but have not figured out how to use it
effectively, although I think it has promise.
tools for data mining and text analysis
- Megaputer offers tools for data mining and knowledge
discovery in databases, semantic text analysis, and
information retrieval. Megaputer's flagship products are
PolyAnalyst and TextAnalyst. In that regard,
it appears to be similar to WordStat.
- This is the successor
program to KEDS, which was created by former NU faculty
member, Phil Schrodt, a quantitative IR scholar who
departed for the University of Kansas some years ago. For
years, KEDS was only available for Macintosh computers.
TABARI runs on Macintosh computers, on PCs using the
Liniux operating system, and can be run as a DOS progam
under Windows. It was designed for the machine coding of
international event data using pattern recognition and
simple grammatical parsing. It works with short news
articles such as those found in wire service reports or
Representation of Text: TextArc
- A TextArc creates a
visual represention of a text on a single page. It is
described as "A funny combination of an index,
concordance, and summary; it uses the viewer's eye to
help uncover meaning." I've not tried it.
lexical database for the English language
- WordNet® was developed at Princeton by George
Miller, a cognitive psychologist. It is an online lexical
reference system informed by psycholinguistic theories of
human lexical memory. English nouns, verbs, adjectives
and adverbs are organized into synonym sets, each
representing one underlying lexical concept. Different
relations link the synonym sets. Algthough not a content
analysis program, it can be helpful to content