1964 DEMOCRATIC PARTY
(5,281 words, 19 pages)
ONE NATION, ONE PEOPLE.
America is One Nation, One People. The welfare, progress, security and survival of each of us reside in the common good, the sharing of responsibilities as well as benefits by all our people.
Democracy in America rests on the confidence that people can be trusted with freedom. It comes from the conviction that we will find in freedom a unity of purpose stronger than all our differences.
We have drawn upon that unity when the forces of ignorance, hate, and fear fired an assassin'sbullet at the nation's heart, incited violence in our land, and attacked the outposts of freedom around the world.
Because of this unity, those who traffic in fear, hate, falsehood, and violence have failed to undermine our people's deep love of truth and quiet faith in freedom.
Our program for the future is to make the national purpose,the human purpose of us all, fulfill our individual needs. Accordingly, we offer this platform as a convenant of unity. We invite all to join us who believe that narrow partisanship takes too small account of the size of our task, the penalties for failure and the boundless rewards to all our people for success.
We offer as the goal of this covenant peace for all nations and freedom for all peoples.
Peace should be the first concern of all governments as it is the prayer of all men.
At the start of the third decade of the nuclear age, the preservation of peace requires the strength to wage war and the wisdom to avoid it. The search of peace requires the utmost intelligence, the clearest vision, and a strong sense of reality.
Because for four years our nation has patiently demonstrated these qualities and persistently used them, the world is closer to peace today than it was in 1960.
In 1960, freedom was on the defensive. The Communists, doubting both our strength and our will to use it, pressed forward in Southeast Asia, Latin-America, Central Africa and Berlin.
President Kennedy and Vice-President Johnson set out to remove any question of our power or our will. In the Cuban crisis of 1962 the Communist offensive shattered on the rock of President Kennedy's determination, and our ability, to defend the peace.
Two years later, President Johnson responded to another Communist challenge, this time in the Gulf of Tonkin. Once again power exercised with restraint repulsed Communist aggression and strengthened the cause of freedom.
Responsible leadership, unafraid but refusing to take needless risk, has turned the tide in freedom's favor. No nation, old or new, has joined the Communist bloc since Cuba during the preceding Republican Administration. Battered by economic failures, challenged by recent American achievements in space, torn by the Chinese-Russian rift, and faced with American strength and courage, international Communism has lost its unity and momentum.
By the end of 1960, military strategy was being shaped by the dictates of arbitrary budget ceilings instead of the real needs of national security. There were, for example, too few ground and air forces to fight limited war, although such wars were a means to continued Communist expansion.
Since then, and at the lowest possible cost, we have created a balanced, versatile, powerful defense establishment, capable of countering aggression across the entire spectrum of conflict, from nuclear confrontation to guerrilla subversion.
We have increased our intercontinental ballistic missiles and Polaris missiles from fewer than 100 to more than 1000, more than four times the force of the Soviet Union. We have increased the number of combat ready divisions from 11 to 16.
Until such time as there can be an enforceable treaty providing for inspected and verified disarmament, we must, and we will, maintain our military strength, as the sword and shield of freedom and the guarantor of peace.
Specifically, we must and we will:
Continue the overwhelming supremacy of our Strategic Nuclear Forces.
Strengthen further our forces for discouraging limited wars and fighting subversion.
Maintain the world's largest research and development effort, which has initiated more than 200 new programs since 1961, to ensure continued American leadership in weapons systems and equipment.
Continue the nationwide Civil Defense program as an important part of our national security.
Pursue our examination of the Selective Service program to make certain that it is continued only as long as it is necessary and that we meet our military manpower needs without social or economic injustice.
Attract to the military services the highest caliber of career men and women and make certain they are adequately paid and adequately housed.
Maintain our Cost Reduction Program, to ensure a dollar's worth of defense for every dollar spent, and minimize the disruptive effect of changes in defense spending.
BUILDING THE PEACE
As citizens of the United States we are determined that it be the most powerful nation on earth.
As citizens of the world we insist that this power be exercised with the utmost responsibility.
Control of the use of nuclear weapons must remain solely with the highest elected official in the country, the President of the United States.
Through our policy of never negotiating from fear but never fearing to negotiate, we are slowly but surely approaching the point where effective international agreements providing for inspection and control can begin to lift the crushing burden of armaments off the backs of the people of the world.
In the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, signed now by over 100 nations, we have written our commitment to limitations on the arms race, consistent with our security. Reduced production of nuclear material for weapons purposes has been announded and nuclear weapons have been barred from outer space.
Already the air we and our children breathe is freer of nuclear contamination.
We are determined to continue all-out efforts through fully enforceable measures to halt and reverse the arms race and bring to an end the era of nuclear terror.
We will maintain our solemn commitment to the United Nations with its constituent agencies working to strengthen it as a more effective instrument for peace, for preventing or resolving international disputes, and for building free nations through economic, technical, and cultural development. We continue to oppose the admission of Red China to the United Nations.
Be believe in increased partership with our friends and associates in the community which spans the North Atlantic. In every possible way we will work to strengthen our ties and increase our cooperation, building always more firmly on the sure foundation of the NATO treaty.
We pledge unflagging devotion to our commitments to freedom from Berlin to South Vietnam.
Help the people of developing nations in Asia, Africa and Latin America raise their standards of living and create conditions in which freedom and independence can flourish.
Place increased priority on private enterprise and development loans as we continue to improve our mutual assistance programs.
Work for the attainment of peace in the Near East as an urgent
goal, using our best efforts to prevent a military unbalance, to
encourage arms reductions and the use of national resources for
internal development and to encourage the resettlement of Arab
refugees in lands where there is room and opportunity. The problems
of political adjustment between Israel and the Arab countries can and
must be peacefully resolved and the
territorial integrity of every nation respected.
Support the partnership of free American Republics in the Alliance for Progress.
Move actively to carry out the Resolution of the Organization of American States to further isolate Castroism and speed the restoration of freedom and responsibility in Cuba.
Support our friends in and around the rim of the Pacific, and encourage a growing understanding among peoples, expansion of cultural exchanges, and strengthening of ties.
Oppose aggression and the use of force or the threat of force against any nation.
Encourage by all peaceful means the growing independence of the captive peoples living under Communism and hasten the day that Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Rumania and the other captive nations will achieve full freedom and self-determination. We deplore Communist oppression of Jews and other minorities.
Encourage expansion of our economic ties with other nations of the world and eliminate unjustifiable tariff and nontariff barriers, under authority of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962.
Expand the Peace Corps.
Use even more of our Food for Peace.
THE CONQUEST OF SPACE
In four vigorous years we have moved to the forefront of space exploration. The United States must never again settle for second place in the race for tomorrow's frontiers.
We will continue the rapid development of space technology for peaceful uses.
We will encourage private industry to increase its efforts in space research.
We will continue to ensure that any race in space is won for freedom and for peace.
THE LEADERSHIP WE OFFER
The complications and dangers in our restless, constantly changing world require of us consummate understanding and experience. One rash act, one thoughtless decision, one unchecked reaction and cities could become smouldering ruins and farms parched wasteland.
The leadership we offer has already been tested in the crucible of crisis and challenge. To this nation and to all the world we reaffirm President Johnson's resolve to "use every resource at the command of the government, and the people, to find the road to peace".
We offer this platform as a guide for that journey.
FREEDOM AND WELL-BEING
There can be full freedom only when all of our people have opportunity for education to the full extent of their ability to learn, followed by the opportunity to employ their learning in the creation of something of value to themselves and to the nation.
Our task is to make the national purpose serve the human purpose: that every person shall have the opportunity to become all that he is capable of becoming.
We believe that knowledge is essential to individual freedom and to the conduct of a free society. We believe that knowledge is essential to individual freedom and to the conduct of a free society. we believe that education is the surest and most profitable investment a nation can make.
Regardless of family financial status therefore, education should be open to every boy or girl in America up to the highest level which he or she is able to master.
In an economy which will offer fewer and fewer places for the unskilled, there must be a wide variety of educational opportunities so that every young American, on leaving school
will have acquired the training to take a useful and rewarding place in our society.
It is increasingly clear that more of our educational resources must be directed to pre-school training as well as to junior college, college and post-graduate study.
The demands on the already inadequate sources of state and local revenues place a serious limitation on education. New methods of financial aid must be explored, including the channeling of federally collected revenues to all levels of education, and, to the extent permitted by the Constitution, to all schools. Only in this way can our educational programs achieve excellence throughout the nation, a goal that must be achieved without interfering with local control and direction of education.
In order to insure that all students who can meet the requirements for college entrance can continue their education, we propose an expanded program of public scholarships, guaranteed loans, and work-study grants.
We shall develop the potential of the Armed Forces for training young men who might otherwise be rejected for military service because their work skills are underdeveloped.
The health of the people is important to the strength and purpose of our country and is a proper part of our common concern. In a nation that lacks neither compassion nor resources, the needless suffering of people who cannot afford adequate medical care is intolerable:
We will continue to fight until we have succeeded in including hospital care for older Americans in the Social Security program and have insured adequate assistance to those elderly people suffering from mental illness and mental retardation.
We will go forward with research into the causes and cures of disease, accidents, mental illness and mental retardation.
We will further expand our health facilities, especially medical schools, hospitals, and research laboratories.
America's veterans who served their Nation so well must, in turn, be served fairly by a grateful Nation. First rate hospitals and medical care must be provided veterans with service connected injuries and disabilities, and their compensation rates must insure an adequate standard of living. The National Service Life Insurance Program should be reopened for those who have lost their insurance coverage, and an equitable and just pension system must help meet the need of those disabled veterans and their survivors who require financial assistance.
Democracy of Opportunity
The variety of our people is the source of our strength and ought not to be a cause of disunity or discord. The rights of all our citizens must be protected and all the laws of our land obeyed if america is to be safe for democracy.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 deserves and requires full observance by every American and fair, effective enforcement if there is any default.
Resting upon a national consensus expressed by the overwhelming support of both parties, this new law impairs the rights of no American, it affirms the rights of all Americans. Its purpose is not to divide, but to end division, not to curtail the opportunities of any, but to increase opportunities for all, not to punish, but to promote further our commitment to freedom, the pursuit of justice, and a deeper respect for human dignity.
We reaffirm our belief that lawless disregard for the rights of others is wrong, whether used to deny equal rights or to obtain equal rights.
We cannot and will not tolerate lawlessness. We can and will seek to eliminate its economic and social causes.
True democracy of opportunity will not be served by establishing quotas based on the same false distinctions we seek to erase nor can the effects of prejudice be neutralized by the expedient of preferential practices.
The immigration laws must be revised to permit families to be reunited, to welcome the persecuted and oppressed, and to eliminate the discriminatory provisions which base admission upon national origins.
We will support legislation to carry forward the progress already made toward full equality of opportunity for women as well as men.
We will strive to eliminate discrimination against older Americans, especially in their employment.
Ending discrimination based on race, age, sex, or national origin demands not only equal opportunity but the opportunity to be equal. We are concerned not only with people's right to be free, but also with their ability to use their freedom.
Carry the War on Poverty forward as a total war against the causes of human want.
Move forward with programs to restore those areas, such as Appalachia, which the nation's progress has by-passed.
Help the physically handicapped and mentally disadvantaged develop to the full limit of their capabilities.
Enhance the security of older Americans by encouraging private retirement and welfare programs, offering opportunities like those provided for the young under the Economic Opportunities Act of 1964, and expanding decent housing which older citizens can afford.
Assist our Indian people to improve their standard of living and attain self-sufficiency, the privileges of equal citizenship, and full participation in American life.
The Social Security program initiated and developed under the National leadership of the Democratic Party and in the face of ceaseless partisan opposition, contributes greatly to the strength of the Nation. We must insure that those who have contributed to the system shall share in the steady increase in our standard of living by adjusting benefit levels.
We hold firmly to the conviction long embraced by Democratic Administrations, that the advancing years of life should bring not fear and loneliness, but security, meaning, and satisfaction.
We will encourage further support for the arts, giving people a better chance to use increased leisure and recognizing that the achievements of art are an index of the greatness of a civilization.
We will encourage the advance of science and technology for its material rewards, and for its contribution to an understanding of the universe and ourselves.
The Smerican free enterprise system is one of the great achievements of the human mind and spirit. It has developed by a combination of the energetic efforts of working men and women, bold private initiative, the profit motive and wise public policy, until it is now the productive marvel of mankind.
In spite of this, at the outset of 1961, America was in the depths of the fourth postwar recession.
Since then, in 42 months of uninterrupted expansion under Presidents Kennedy and Johnson, we have achieved the longest and strongest peacetime prosperity in modern history:
Almost four million jobs have been added to the economy, almost one and one half million since last December.
Workers earnings and corporate profits are at the highest level in history.
Prices have been more stable than in any other industrial nation in the free world.
This did not just happen. It has come about because we have wisely and prudently used our increasing understanding of how the economy works.
It is the national purpose, and our commitment, to continue this expansion of the American economy toward its potential, without a recession, with continued stability, and with an extension of the benefits of this growth and prosperity to those who have not fully shared in them.
This will require continuation of flexible and innovative fiscal, monetary, and debt management policies, recognizing the importance of low interest rates.
We will seek further tax reduction and in the process we need to remove inequities in our present tax laws. In particular we should carefully review all our excise taxes and eliminate those that are obsolete. Consideration should be given to the development of fiscal policies which would provide revenue sources to hard-pressed state and local governments to assist them with their responsibilities.
Every penny of Federal spending must be accounted for in terms of the strictest economy, efficiency and integrity. We pledge to continue a frugal government, getting a dollar's value for a dollar spent, and a government worthy of the citizen's confidence.
Our goal is a balanced budget in a balanced economy.
Our enviable record of price stability must be maintained through sound fiscal and monetary policies and the encouragement of responsible private wage and price policies. Stability is essential to protect our citizens, particularly the retired and handicapped from the ravages of inflation. It is also essential to maintain confidence in the American dollar this confidence has been restored in the past four years through sound policies.
Radical changes in technology and automation contribute to increased productivity and a higher standard of living. They must not penalize the few while benefiting the many. We maintain that any man or woman displaced by a machine or by technological change should have the opportunity, without penalty, to another job. Our common responsibility is to see that this right is fulfilled.
Full employment is an end in itself and must be insisted upon as a priority objective.
It is the national purpose, and our commitment, that every man or woman who is willing and able to work is entitled to a job and to a fair wage for doing it.
The coverage of the Fair Labor Standards Act must be extended to all workers employed in industries affecting interstate commerce, and the minimum wage level and coverage increased to assure those at the bottom of the economic scale a fairer share in the benefits of an ever-rising standard of American living.
Overtime payment requirements must be increased to assure maximum employment consistent with business efficiency. The matter of the length of work periods should be given continuing consideration.
The unemployment insurance program must be basically revised to meet the needs of the unemployed and of the economy, and to assure that this program meets the standards the nation's experience dictates.
Agricultural and migratory workers must be given legal protection and economic encouragement.
We must develop fully our most precious resource, our manpower. Training and retraining programs must be expanded. A broad-guage manpower program must be developed which will not only satisfy the needs of the economy but will also give work its maximum meaning in the pattern of human life.
We will stimulate as well as protect small business, the seed-bed of free enterprise and a major source of employment in our economy.
The antitrust laws must be vigorously enforced.
Our population, which is growing rapidly and becoming increasingly mobile, and our expanding economy are placing greater demands upon our transportation system than ever before. We must have fast, safe, and economic modes of transportation. Each mode should be encouraged to develop in accordance with its maximum utility, available at the lowest cost under the principles of fair competition. A strong and efficient American Flag merchant marine is essential to peacetime commerce and defense emergencies.
The industrial democracy of free private collective bargaining and the security of American trade unions must be strengthened by repealing Section 14(b) of the Taft-Hartley Act. The present inequitable restrictions on the right to organize and to strike and picket peaceably must also be eliminated.
In order to protect the hard-earned dollars of American consumers, as well as promote their basic consumer rights, we will make full use of existing authority, and continue to promote efforts on behalf of consumers by industry, voluntary organizations, and state and local governments. Where protection is essential, we will enact legislation to protect the safety of consumers and to provide them with essential information. We will continue to insist that our drugs and medicines are safe and effective, that our food and cosmetics are free from harm, that merchandise is labeled and packaged honestly and that the true cost of credit is disclosed.
It is the national purpose, and our commitment to increase the freedom and effectiveness of the essential private forces and processes in the economy.
The roots of our economy and our life as a people lie deep in the soil of America's farm land.
Our policies and programs must continue to recognize the significant role of agricultural and rural life.
To achieve the goals of higher incomes to the farm and ranch, particularly the family-sized farm, lower prices for the consumer, and lower costs to the government, we will continue to carry forward this three-dimensional program.
1. Commodity Programs to strengthen the farm income structure and reach the goal of parity of income in every aspect of American agriculture. We will continue to explore and develop new domestic and foreign markets for the products of our farms and ranches.
2. Consumer Programs including expansion of the Food Stamp Program and the school lunch and other surplus food programs, and acceleration of research into new industrial uses of farm products, in order to assure maximum use of and abundance of wholesome foods at fair prices here and abroad. We will also study new low-cost methods and techniques of food distribution for the benefit of our housewives to better feed their families.
3. Community Programs and agricultural cooperatives to assure rural America decent housing, economic security and full partnership in the building of the great society. We pledge our continued support of the rural telephone program and the Rural Electrification Administration, which are among the great contributions of the Democratic Party to the well-being and comfort of rural America.
THE NATION'S NATURAL RESOURCES
America's bountiful supply of natural resources has been one of the major factors in achieving our position of world leadership, in developing the greatest industrial machine in the world's history, and in providing a richer and more complete life for every American. But these resources are not inexhaustible. With our vastly expanding population, an estimated 325 million people by the end of the century, there is an ever increasing responsibility to use and conserve our resources wisely and prudently if we are to fulfill our obligation to the trust we hold for future generations. Building on the unsurpassed conservation record of the past four years, we shall:
Continue the quickened pace of comprehensive development of river basins in every section of the country, employing multi purpose projects such as flood-control irrigation and reclamation power generation, navigation, municipal water supply, fish and wildlife enhancement and recreation, where appropriate to realize the fullest possible benefits.
Provide the people of this nation a balanced outdoor recreation program to add to their health and well-being, including the addition or improved management of national parks, forests, lake shores, seashores and recreation areas.
Preserve for us and our posterity through the means provided by the Wilderness Act of 1964 millions of acres of primitive and wilderness areas, including countless beautiful lakes and streams.
Increase our stock of wildlife and fish.
Continue and strengthen the dynamic program inaugurated to assure fair treatment for american fishermen and the preservation of fishing rights. continue to support balanced land and forest development through intensive forest management on a multiple use and sustained yield basis, reforestation of burned land, providing public access roads, range improvement, watershed management, concern for small business operations and recreational uses.
Unlock the resources of the sea through a strong oceanography program.
Continue the attack we have launched on the polluted air that envelopes our cities and on eliminating the pollution of our rivers and streams.
Intensify our efforts to solve the critical water problems of many sections of this country by desalinization.
Sustain and promote strong, vigorous domestic minerals, metals, petroleum and fuels industries.
Increase the efficient use of electrical power through regional inter-ties and more extensive use of high voltage transmission.
Continue to promote the development of new and improved methods of generating electric power, such as the recent important gains in the field of atomic energy and the Passamaquoddy tidal power project.
Preserve the tva which has played such an instrumental role in the revitalization of the area it serves and which has been the inspiration for regional development programs throughout the world.
The vitality of our cities is essential to the healthy growth of American civilization. In the next 40 years urban populations will double, the area of city land will double and we will have to construct houses, highways and facilities equal to all those built since this country was first settled.
Now is the time to redouble our efforts, with full cooperation among local, state and federal governments, for these objectives:
The goal of our housing program must be a decent home for every American family.
Special effort must be made in our cities to provide wholesome living for our young people. We must press the fight against narcotics and, through the war against poverty, increase educational and employment opportunities, turning juvenile delinquents into good citizens and tax users into tax payers.
We will continue to assist broad community and regional development, urban renewal, mass transit, open space and other programs for our metropolitan areas. We will offer such aid without impairing local Administration through unnecessary Federal interference.
Because our cities and suburbs are so important to the welfare of all our people, we believe a department devoted urban affairs should be added to the President's cabinet.
We, the people, are the government.
The Democratic Party believes, as Thomas Jefferson first stated that "the care of human life and happiness is the first and only legitimate object of good government".
The government's business is the people's business. information about public affairs must continue to be freely available to the Congress and to the public.
Every person who participates in the government must be held to a standard of ethics which permits no compromise with the principles of absolute honesty and the maintenance of undivided loyalty to the public interest.
The Congress of the United States should revise its rules and procedures to assure majority rule after reasonable debate and to guarantee that major legislative proposals of the President can be brought to a vote after reasonable consideration in committee.
We support home rule for the District of Columbia. The seat of our government shall be a workshop for democracy, a pilot-plant for freedom, and a place of incomparable beauty.
We also support a constitutional amendment giving the District voting representation in Congress and, pending such action, the enactment of legislation providing for a non-voting delegate from District of Columbia to the House of Representatives.
We support the right of the people of the Virgin Islands to the fullest measure of self-government, including the right to elect their Governor.
The people of Puerto Rico and the people of the United States enjoy a unique relationship that has contributed greatly to the remarkable economic and political development of Puerto Rico.
We look forward to the report on that relationship by a commission composed of members from Puerto Rico and the United States and we are confident that it will contribute to the further enhancement of Puerto Rico and the benefit that flows from the principles of self-determination.
The Democratic Party holds to the belief that government in the United States local state federal was created in order
to serve the people. Each level of government has appropriate powers and each has specific responsibilities. The first responsibility of government at every level is to protect the basic freedoms of the people. No government at any level can properly complain of violation of its power, if it fails to meet its responsibilities.
The federal government exists not to grow larger, but to enlarge the individual potential and achievement of the people.
The federal government exists not to subordinate the states, but to support them.
All of us are Americans. All of us are free men. Ultimately there can be no effective restraint on the powers of government at any level save as Americans exercising their duties as citizens insist upon and maintain free, demo processes of our constitutional system.
ONE NATION, ONE PEOPLE
On November 22,1963, John Fitzgerald Kennedy was shot down in our land.
We honor his memory best and as he would wish by devoting yourselves anew to the larger purposes for which he lived.
Of first priority is our renewed commitments to the values and ideals of democracy.
We are firmly pledged to continue the nation's march towards the goals of equal opportunity and equal treatment for all Americans regardless of race, creed, color or national origin.
We cannot tolerate violence anywhere in our land--north, south, east or west. Resort to lawlessness is anarchy and must be opposed by the Government and all thoughtful citizens.
We must expose, wherever it exists, the advocacy of hatred which creates the clear and present danger of violence.
We condemn extremism, whether from the right or left, including the extreme tactics of such organizations as the Communist Party, the Ku Klux Klan and the John Birch Society.
We know what violence and hate can do. we have seen the tragic consequences of misguided zeal and twisted logic.
The time has come now for all of us to understand and respect one another, and to seek the unity of spirit and purpose from which our future greatness will grow, for only as we work together with the object of liberty and justice for all will peace and freedom of each of us be secured.
These are the principles which command our cause and strengthen our effort as we cross the new frontier and enter upon the great society.