Using Crosstabs with Nominal Data

Feelings about the Bible BY Are You a Born-Again Christian?

OBSERVED Frequencies

Are you a born-again Christian?

What do you think about the Bible?

Yes
No

Totals

It is literally the word of God

368
194

562

It was divinely inspired but don't take literally

198
541

739

It is a book written by humans

16
103

119

 

Totals

582
838

1420

Marginal Totals without Cell Entries

Are you a born-again Christian?

What do you think about the Bible?

Yes
No

Totals

It is literally the word of God

562

It was divinely inspired but don't take literally

739

It is a book written by humans

119

 

Totals

582
838

1420

EXPECTED Frequencies that satisfy marginal totals

Are you a born-again Christian?

What do you think about the Bible?

Yes
No

Totals

It is literally the word of God

582*562/1420=
230.3
838*562/1420=
331.7

562

It was divinely inspired but don't take literally

582*739/1420=
302.9
838*739/1420=
436.1

739

It is a book written by humans

582*119/1420=
48.8
838*119/1420=
70.2

119

 

Totals

582
838

1420

Computation of Chi-Square =

Value of Chi-Square
degrees of freedom
= (r-1)(c-1)
Significance
value for 2 df at .05 = 5.991
238.269
2
.000

Measures of Association

Phi =

.410

Lambda symmetric =

.272

Cramer's V =

.410

asymmetric, Bible dependent =

.250

Contingency coefficient, C =

.379

asymmetric, born dependent =

.299