THE PEW RESEARCH CENTER


FOR THE PEOPLE AND THE PRESS

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AMERICA'S NEW INTERNATIONALIST POINT OF VIEW

The terrorist attacks and the war in Afghanistan have created a new internationalist sentiment among the public. There is much more support for a multilateral foreign policy than before Sept.11, with roughly six-in-ten (59%) now saying that the interests of allies should be taken into account by U.S. policymakers. By about a two-to-one margin (61%-32%) the public thinks that taking an active role in the world, rather than becoming less involved, will be a more effective way of avoiding problems like terrorism in the future. And support for assertive U.S. leadership also has grown, with as many as 45% saying that the United States should either be the single world leader or at least be the most active of leading nations.


ABOUT THIS SURVEY

Results for the America's Place In The World Callback survey are based on telephone interviews conducted under the direction of Princeton Survey Research Associates among a sample of 1,281 adults who were interviewed for the original America's Place In The World Survey (August 21 - September 5, 2001 N=2,002). These re-interviews were conducted during the period October 15-21, 2001.

For results based on the total sample, one can say with 95% confidence that the error attributable to sampling and other random effects is plus or minus 3 percentage points. For results based on either Form 1 (N=638) or Form 2 (N=643), the sampling error is plus or minus 4.5 percentage points.

In addition to sampling error, one should bear in mind that question wording and practical difficulties in conducting surveys can introduce error or bias into the findings of opinion polls.


AMERICA'S PLACE IN THE WORLD METHODOLOGY IN DETAIL

The Call Back Survey

For the callback, at least 10 attempts were made to complete an interview with every respondent in the original survey. The calls were staggered over times of day and days of the week to maximize the chances of making a contact with a respondent. All interview breakoffs and refusals were re-contacted at least once in order to attempt to convert them to completed interviews.

Non-response in telephone interview surveys produces some known biases in survey-derived estimates because participation tends to vary for different subgroups of the population, and these subgroups are likely to vary also on questions of substantive interest. In order to compensate for these known biases, the sample data are weighted in analysis.

The demographic weighting parameters are derived from a special analysis of the most recently available Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (March 2000). This analysis produced population parameters for the demographic characteristics of households with adults 18 or older, which are then compared with the sample characteristics to construct sample weights. The analysis only included households in the continental United States that contain a telephone.

The weights are derived using an iterative technique that simultaneously balances the distributions of all weighting parameters.

The Original Survey

The sample for the original survey is a random digit sample of telephone numbers selected from telephone exchanges in the continental United States. The random digit aspect of the sample is used to avoid "listing" bias and provides representation of both listed and unlisted numbers (including not-yet-listed). The design of the sample ensures this representation by random generation of the last two digits of telephone numbers selected on the basis of their area code, telephone exchange, and bank number.

The telephone exchanges were selected with probabilities proportional to their size. The first eight digits of the sampled telephone numbers (area code, telephone exchange, bank number) were selected to be proportionally stratified by county and by telephone exchange within county. That is, the number of telephone numbers randomly sampled from within a given county is proportional to that county's share of telephone numbers in the U.S. Only working banks of telephone numbers are selected. A working bank is defined as 100 contiguous telephone numbers containing one or more residential listings.

The sample was released for interviewing in replicates. Using replicates to control the release of sample to the field ensures that the complete call procedures are followed for the entire sample. The use of replicates also insures that the regional distribution of numbers called is appropriate. Again, this works to increase the representativeness of the sample.

At least 10 attempts were made to complete an interview at every sampled telephone number. The calls were staggered over times of day and days of the week to maximize the chances of making a contact with a potential respondent. All interview breakoffs and refusals were re-contacted at least once in order to attempt to convert them to completed interviews. In each contacted household, interviewers asked to speak with the "youngest male 18 or older who is at home." If there is no eligible man at home, interviewers asked to speak with "the oldest woman 18 or older who is at home." This systematic respondent selection technique has been shown empirically to produce samples that closely mirror the population in terms of age and gender.

Non-response in telephone interview surveys produces some known biases in survey-derived estimates because participation tends to vary for different subgroups of the population, and these subgroups are likely to vary also on questions of substantive interest. In order to compensate for these known biases, the sample data are weighted in analysis.

The demographic weighting parameters are derived from a special analysis of the most recently available Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (March 2000). This analysis produced population parameters for the demographic characteristics of households with adults 18 or older, which are then compared with the sample characteristics to construct sample weights. The analysis only included households in the continental United States that contain a telephone.

The weights are derived using an iterative technique that simultaneously balances the distributions of all weighting parameters.


Questions Asked in the Survey and Response Marginals
                               PEW RESEARCH CENTER FOR THE PEOPLE AND THE PRESS
                                         & COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS
                                        AMERICA'S PLACE IN THE WORLD, III
                                        GENERAL PUBLIC CALLBACK TOPLINE
                                                OCT 15-21, 2001
                                                    N = 1,281
               
All in all, 
Q.1  What kind of leadership role should the United States play in the world? Should it
     be the single world leader, or should it play a shared leadership role, or shouldn't
     it play any leadership role?
IF ANSWERED 2 "SHARED LEADERSHIP ROLE" IN Q.1, ASK:
Q.2  Should the United States be the most active of the leading nations, or should it be
     about as active as other leading nations?
               
                                                Early Sept  Sept  June  Oct   Sept
                                                   2001     1997  1995  1993  1993
     12   Be the single world leader, or            13       12    13     9    10
     79   Should it play a shared leadership role   75       73    74    78    81
          33 Most active                            25       22    25    23    27
          45 About as active                        49       50    47    53    52
           1 Don't know/Refused                      1        1     2     2     2
      3   Shouldn't it play any leadership role      8       11     9     9     7
      6   Don't know/Refused                         4        4     4     4     2
     100                                           100      100   100   100   100
               
ASK ALL:
Q.3  In general, how well do you think the U.S. government is doing in reducing the threat
     of terrorism? [READ]
               
                                    Oct 10-14
                                       2001
     38   Very well                     48
     46   Fairly well                   40
      9   Not too well                   6
      4   Not at all well                2
      3   Don't know/Refused             4
     100                               100
               
               
Q.4  How should the U.S. determine its policy with regard to the war on terrorism? Should it be
     based mostly on the national interests of the U.S., or should it strongly take into account
     the interests of its allies?
               
                                           Early Sept
                                             2001
     30   U.S. national interests             38
     59   Interests and views of allies       48
      7   Both (VOL)                           7
      *   Neither (VOL)                        1
      4   Don't Know/Refused                   6
     100                                     100
               
Q.5F1/
Q.6F2     As I read a list of possible LONG-RANGE foreign policy goals which the United
          States might have, tell me how much priority you think each should be given.
          First, [READ AND ROTATE], do you think this should have top priority, some priority,
          or no priority at all:
               
                                                Top      Some       No
Q.5F1/Q.6F2 ITEM [N=1,281]:                  Priority  Priority  Priority  DK/Ref
5F1d/
6F2a.    Taking measures to protect the U.S.
         from terrorist attacks                 93         6         *      1=100
           Early September, 2001                80        16         3      1=100
               
Q.5F1 ITEMS ONLY  [N=638]:
5F1a.    Preventing the spread of weapons 
         of mass destruction                    81        14         2      3=100
           Early September, 2001                78        16         5      1=100
           September, 1997                      70        23         6      1=100
           June, 1995                           68        21         9      2=100
           September, 1993                      69        24         5      1=100
               
5F1b.    Insuring adequate energy supplies
         for the U.S.                           69        29         1      1=100
           Early September, 2001                74        23         2      1=100
           September, 1997                      58        36         3      3=100
           June, 1995                           59        34         3      4=100
           September, 1993                      60        34         4      2=100
               
5F1c.    Promoting democracy in other nations   24        61        12      3=100
           Early September, 2001                29        52        16      3=100
           September, 1997                      22        57        18      3=100
           June, 1995                           16        57        24      3=100
           September, 1993                      22        52        24      2=100
               
5F1e.    Promoting U.S. business and economic 
         interests abroad                       30         63        4      3=100
           Early September, 2001                37         53        8      2=100
           September, 1997                      16         62       20      2=100
           June, 1995                           26         50       20      4=100
           September, 1993                      27         51       19      3=100
               
5F1f.    Strengthening the United Nations       46         46        7      1=100
           Early September, 2001                42         43       13      2=100
           September, 1997                      30         53       14      3=100
           June, 1995                           36         45       17      2=100
           September, 1993                      41         46       11      2=100
               
5F1g.    Reducing the spread of AIDS and other 
         infectious diseases                    59         38        2      1=100
           Early September, 2001                73         23        3      1=100
               
5F1h.    Protecting groups or nations that are
         threatened with genocide               48         43        3      6=100
           Early September, 2001                49         41        5      5=100
               
               
Q.6F2 ITEMS ONLY [N=643]:
6F2b.    Helping improve the living standards
         in developing nations                  20         67       12      1=100
           Early September, 2001                25         61       12      2=100
           September, 1997                      23         63       13      1=100
           June, 1995                           16         59       22      3=100
           September, 1993                      19         60       20      1=100
               
6F2c.    Protecting the jobs of American
         workers                                74         24        1      1=100
           Early September, 2001                77         19        3      1=100
           September, 1997                      77         20        2      1=100
           June, 1995                           80         17        2      1=100
           September, 1993                      85         13        2      *=100
               
6F2d.    Promoting and defending human rights
         in other countries                     27         61       10      2=100
           Early September, 2001                29         54       14      3=100
           September, 1997                      27         56       15      2=100
           June, 1995                           21         56       20      3=100
           September, 1993                      22         54       22      2=100
               
6F2e.    Combating international drug
         trafficking                            55         38        5      2=100
           Early September, 2001                64         26        9      1=100
           September, 1997                      67         24        7      2=100
               
6F2f.    Getting other countries to assume
         more of the costs of maintaining
         world order                            54         41        3      2=100
           Early September, 2001                56         35        6      3=100
               
6F2g.    Dealing with the problem of
         world hunger                           34         59        6      1=100
           Early September, 2001                47         44        7      2=100
               
6F2h.    Dealing with global warming            31         51       13      5=100
           Early September, 2001                44         39       12      5=100
           September, 1997                      50         42        6      2=100
           June, 1995                           56         36        6      2=100
           September, 1993                      56         37        6      1=100
               
               
NO Q.7 OR Q.8
               
               
ASK ALL:
Q.9  Do you think that we should increase our spending on national defense, keep it about
     the same, or cut it back?
               
                    Early RV's                                         10- 10- 10-
                    Sept  Sept Aug  June Sept Feb    10/ Sept  11/ 11/ 11/ 11/ 12/
                    2001  2000 1999 1999 1997 1995   94+ 1993  90+ 86+ 82+ 78+ 74+
     50   Increase   32    34   27   31   17   19    18   10   12  21  22  32  13
     41   Keep same  44    48   54   47   57   56    53   52   53  55  52  45  47
      7   Cut back   20    14   16   19   24   24    26   36   32  23  24  16  33
      2   DK/Ref.     4     4    3    3    2    1     3    2    3   3   3   7   8
     100            100   100  100  100  100  100   100   100 100 100 100 100 100
               
         + Chicago Council on Foreign Relations
               
               
Q.10 In the dispute between Israel and the Palestinians, which side do you sympathize with
     more, Israel or the Palestinians?
               
                              Early             Chicago Council on Foreign Relations
                              Sept  Sept Sept       Oct-Nov  Oct-Nov   Nov
                              2001  1997 1993        1990     1982     1978
     47   Israel               40    48   45          34       41       39
     10   Palestinians         17    13   21          13       17       12
      8   Both (VOL)            6     5    3           7        8        8
     18   Neither (VOL)        23    16   18          26       19       15
     17   Don't know/Refused   14    18   12          20       16       13
     100                      100   100  100         100      100      100
               
               
ASK FORM 1 ONLY [N=638]:
Q.11 Thinking about the financial aid the United States provides Israel for military purposes,
     do you think U.S. military aid to Israel should be increased, kept the same, or decreased?
               
                             ------- Gallup -------
                             Sept 2001   July 1999
     10   Increased             16           10
     56   Kept the same         47           42
     25   Decreased             31           44
      9   Don't know/Refused     6            4
     100                       100          100
               
               
ASK FORM 2 ONLY [N=643]:
Q.12 Thinking about the Mideast situation these days, do you think the U.S. should take
     Israel's side more, less or about as much as it has in the past?
               
     16   More
     19   Less
     56   As much as in the past
      9   Don't know/Refused
     100
               
               
ASK ALL:
Q.13 Do you think the U.S. should put into effect a national missile defense system,
     or don't you think so?
IF 1 "YES" IN Q.13 ASK:
Q.14 Do we have a pressing need for this system right now or is this something we should
     put off into the future?
               
                                                  Early
                                                  Sept  May   Feb
                                                  2001  2001  2001
          Yes, U.S. should put into effect a
     64   national missile defense system          56    51    54
          49   Need the system right now           35    29    n/a
          14   Should put it off into the future   19    19    n/a
           1   Don't know/Refused                   2     3    n/a
     26   No, U.S. should not                      35    38    32
     10   Don't know/Refused                        9    11    14
     100                                          100   100   100
               
               
ASK ALL:
In your view, 
Q.15 How well is the MILITARY effort to destroy the terrorist groups going? [READ]
               
                                Oct 10-14
                                  2001
     38   Very well                45
     45   Fairly well              35
      9   Not too well              6
      2   Not at all well           4
      6   Don't know/Refused       10
     100                          100
               
               
Q.16 How would you rate the job the government is doing in BUILDING DEFENSES at home to
     prevent future terrorist attacks? Would you say the government is doing an excellent
     job, a good job, only a fair job, or a poor job?  [READ]
               
                                Oct 10-14
                                  2001
     18   Excellent                20
     51   Good                     47
     22   Only fair                22
      5   Poor                      4
      4   Don't know/Refused        7
     100                          100
               
               
Q.17 If you had to choose, what should get a higher priority now? [READ AND ROTATE]
               
                                                                                Oct   Late
                                                                                10-14 Sept
                                                                                2001  2001
     37   Building our defenses at home to prevent future terrorist attacks      36    33
          -OR--
     48   Taking military action to destroy terrorist networks around the world  45    44
     13   Both (VOL)                                                             13    16
      2   Don't know/Refused                                                      6     7
     100                                                                        100   100
               
               
               
Q.18 How worried are you that there will soon be another terrorist attack in the United
     States? [READ]
               
                                Oct 10-14 Early Oct
                                  2001      2001
     29   Very worried             27        28
     42   Somewhat worried         40        45
     18   Not too worried          19        15
     10   Not at all worried       12        11
      1   Don't know/Refused        2         1
     100                          100       100
               
               
Q.19 As of today, do you feel that your life  [READ]
               
                                                   Newsweek
                                                  9/27-28/01
     41   Has returned to normal                     40
     31   Is BEGINNING to return to normal           35
      8   Still hasn't begun to return to normal      7
     17   Will NEVER return to normal?               15
      3   Don't know/Refused                          3
     100                                            100
               
               
Q.20 In the long run, what is the best way for the U.S. to avoid problems like terrorism?
     Should the U.S.: [READ AND ROTATE]
               
     61   Be very much involved in solving international problems?
          --OR--
     32   Not get too involved with international problems?
      7   Don't know/Refused
     100
               
               
Q.21 Do you think the terrorist attacks are the start of a major conflict between the
     people of America and Europe versus the people of Islam, or is it only a conflict
     with a small, radical group?
               
     28   Major conflict
     63   Conflict with a radical group
      9   Don't know/Refused
100