Communist Party, 274
Kommunistische Partei Luxemburg, 274
1.01 Year of Origin
and 1.02 Name Changes
The literature does not contain conclusive evidence concerning the
founding of the Communist Party. Our consultant states that it was
founded in 1921, but that the first Communist deputy was expelled
of the loner house in 1934 because the CSV/liberal government
denoted the Communist Party as anti-constitutional. No Communist
deputy sat in the chamber until 1937. The Party has not undergone
any name changes and has always been referred to as the Communist
While none of the literature refers directly to this code, no
evidence is available to indicate that the party underwent any
splits or mergers. In fact it seems that the party has been able
to present a unified front, since it frequently opposes just about
everything that the other parties try to Accomplish. After our
time period, however, a split occurred on the china question at
about 1965, the directorate of the party supporting the soviets
against the "military clique of peking.' but this split didn't
weaken the party. It concerned only intellectuals.
Zenon Bernard became president of the party upon its founding in
1921. It is not clear when he was replaced as party leader, but by
1946 Dominique Urbany was general secretary and party leader. He
served in this capacity throughout our time period, with Arthur
Useldinger continuously serving as second in command. It is not
known how Urbany was selected. So a compromise score was
1.05 / 2.05
Legislative Instability and Strength
Instability is .16,
Strength is .07, for 1950-56, AC9, and .06 for 1957-62, Ac9
The Communist representation in the chamber of deputies declined
to 6 percent at the end of our period from a high of 10 percent in
1.06 / 2.06
Electoral Instability and Strength
Instability is .12,
Strength is .08 for 1950-56, AC6. And .07 for 1957-62, AC5
The Communists took 9 percent of the vote in 1954 and 7 percent in
the 1951 and 1959 elections.
Governmental Status Variables,
The Communist Party, according to a Communist historian, was
severely discriminated against prior to our time period. The high
point of this feeling occurred in the late 1930'5 and early
1940'5. After the war the party appears to have faired much
0 out of 7 for
0 out of 6 for 1957-62, AC9
Because the party is such a small political force, it is very
rarely represented in the government. In the past it has not been
able to receive adequate support to gain even a parliamentary
0 out of 7 for
0 out of 6 for 1957-62, AC9
For the same reasons as above, the party has not been represented
in the cabinet.
According to election figures and the literature, the Communist
Party is primarily a regional party, acquiring most of its
strength in the southern industrial region. It does acquire some
support in the other three areas but nothing of any consequence.
In 1959, the party only presented candidates in two of the
The party was formed by Zenon Bernard and some of his friends.
Bernard was a rolling mill worker.
Issue Orientation Variables, 5.01-5.15
5.01 Ownership of
Means of Production
The available information states little more than the party
followed the usual Communist program. Our consultant says that it
was in favor of nationalization of industry.
Role in Economic Planning
There is no specific information, but our consultant says the
party was in favor of all progressive measures for the lower
5.06 Support of the
5.07 Alignment with
The party is rigidly orthodox in following the Moscow line, hence
it mould seem that the party would be willing to engage in formal
alliances with the eastern bloc if it were in its power to make
The party voted against all attempts at European integration, and
the party is also against Luxembourg's participation in NATO.
However, it seems that the party voted this nay for ideological
reasons rather than for a sincere quarrel with the idea of
supranational organization. Since it was not given a chance to
vote on an issue like Luxembourg's participation in the Warsaw
pact, a true idea of its feeling for integration cannot be
Voting is compulsory in Luxembourg.
5.12 Protection of
with Civil Liberties
Our consultant stales that, having been itself subject to all
kinds of persecution and controls, the Communist Party favors an
extension of civil liberties in Luxembourg.
experts left-right ratings
US says 4,
Communist Soviets say 3, a Marxist-Leninist party supporting the
principles of proletarian internationalism and the union of the
international Communist movement.
Goal Orientation Variables, 6.01-6.55
Competition in the Electoral Process
While no specific mention was made of this variable and the
following two, it appears that the party is oriented to open
competition with no attempt at restriction or subversion of
political activities. The party is such a small force that it
would probably not be practical for it to engage in such
activities since the benefit mould be very small and the risk very
great. Its poor popular support also may prohibit it from engaging
in such activities.
The party was never strong enough to attempt to restrict the
competition of others.
6.20 Subverting the
Its opposition to the government appears to have been limited to
Ideas and Program
The party goes publish a newspaper, the "Zeitung Vum Letzeburger
Our consultant says that the party does operate a party
It is not possible to determine to what extent the party engages
in these activities. I would guess that the party does engage in
these activities but the data are not sufficient to support this
6.50 Providing for
Welfare of Party Members
Autonomy Variables, 7.01-7.05
7.01 Sources of
The information was not available to determine the source of the
7.02 Source of
The file lacks completeness but it did identify the labor sector
as its source of members, which are assumed to be all
7.03 Sources of
1 (sector 011),
Since the party draws its support from only one institutional
sector of society. It would seem reasonable to assume that its
leaders also come from that sector. That sector is labor,
7.04 Relations with
The party was almost always opposed to everything that the ruling
coalition did. Our consultant notes that this opposition of
principle was very developed against the CSV, which used the
Communist Party as a scapegoat. The Socialist-liberal government
of 1974 established other relations with the Communists, and they
supported the new government on crucial issues.
7.05 Relations with
The party supports the Moscow line and was one of the ten
Communist parties to support the invasion of Czechoslovakia. The
party is rigidly orthodox in following the Moscow line, and it is
said to draw its financial support from the USSR and the
Organizational Complexity Variables,
The literature contains almost no information concerning the
organization of the Communist Party, and we have had to rely
entirely on facts supplied by our consultant in coding the
variables concerning the degree of organization. According to his
information, there is a Congress, a Central Committee, an
Executive Committee, and a Secretariat. There is no information
concerning the selection procedures for the members of these
bodies, and their functions are not known.
Our consultant reports that the party does have cells in
8.04 Frequency of
8.05 Frequency of
Our consultant reports that the central committee meets every two
The party does publish a newspaper, and it is assumed that it
maintains membership lists in some form. There is no information
concerning other types of record keeping.
Apart from the relatively weak free association of Luxembourg
workers, the party was not able to sustain ancillary labor
organizations. But our consultant reports that the party did have
a women's organization and organizations for youth and
Organizational Power Variables, 9.01-9.08
Nationalization of Structure
No party structure is articulated in the literature, though this
should not de taken to mean that no organization exists. There is
a reference to the party president getting together with the other
party presidents to build a government. A party organization of
some sort most likely exists, but the literature does not provide
sufficient information to determine its structure.
9.02 Selecting the
Because nothing is known about the selection procedures when
Urbany replaced Bernard, this code must only be a guess. But our
consultant states that when Jean Kill, the number three person in
the hierarchy, died in 1970, he was replaced by Rene Urbany, son
of Dominique Urbany, the leader. The inference is that the top
leadership group is largely self perpetuating.
A blank code for this party is incorrect since a legislature does
exist and the party does attempt to place its representatives in
the legislature. However, there is no mention in the literature of
the method of nomination or selection.
There is a daily Communist newspaper, and two party leaders have
written books on the Communist Party in Luxembourg and on the
history of Luxembourg. A national orientation to media control was
assumed since the writers here leaders or important members of the
party. Local control could easily exist but the data were
insufficient to determine this.
There is no information on this variable in our file. But our
consultant says that two or three families have been dominant in
the top leadership of the party. Urbany and Useldinger, for
example, here continually spoken of as number one and number two
in the party. Kill and Grandgenet here other prominent names
during our period.
Coherence Variables, 10.01-10.06
No statistics here found to calculate the rice index. However, the
Communist Party is regarded as rigidly orthodox and votes very
frequently against many of the government's proposals. As an
opposition party, solidarity was assumed.
The data are simply not adequate to assign a code. I would guess
that the party did not experience ideological disputes, but this
is purely an intuitive guess and not supported explicitly by the
literature. After our time period, of course, there was a split
over the China issue.
Given the party's voting records on various subjects, it seems
reasonable to assume that the party is for all practical purposes
solidly unanimous on the issues which confront it.
The information on this variable was not complete enough to assign
a code. Our consultant says there was no real leadership
factionalism, except sometimes certain rivalries.
10.05 Strategic or
Our consultant says there was no factionalism concerning the
party's strategy on tactics.
No evidence of purges or splits was found in the
Involvement Variables, 11.01-11.06
In the absence of information to the contrary, it is assumed that
the membership requirements are the standard ones of dues,
registration, and probation--which are common to almost all
There are references to two history books written by Communists
and also to the Communist Party paper, but their utility for
determining party doctrine was not discussed. One reference was
also found to the writings and speeches of Zenon Bernard--founder
of the party. His present influence on the party was not