Path: Table of Contents > Essay on Party Politics > Party 272
Luxembourg Socialist Labor Party, 272
Variables and Codes for 1950-1962
For the concepts and variables below, use these links to Political Parties: A Cross-National Survey:
Governmental Status
Issue Orientation
Goal Orientation
Organizational Complexity
Organizational Power
Organizational Coherence
Membership Involvement
The "ac" code is for "adequacy-confidence"--a data quality measure ranging from 0 (low) to 9 (high)
Party Name and Code Number
Luxembourg Socialist Labour or Workers Party, 272
Luxemberger Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei, 272

Institutionalization Variables
, 1.01-1.06
1.01 year of origin and 1.02 name changes
1902, AC9 or AC9
The Socialist Labor Party, which has undergone no name changes since its inception, was forged in 1902 by Dr. Michel Welter. As early as 1907, Welter was an elected representative on a Socialist platform, but no formal party organization existed until a meeting with other Socialists occurred in 1902.
1.03 Organizational Discontinuity
0, AC6
Our consultant states that there have been two splits in the party. One in 1921 led to the formation of the Communist Party, and another in 1971 led to the formation of the Social Democratic Party (right-wing). However, these occurred before and after our time period and are not counted in the scoring of this variable.
1.04 Leadership Competition
16, AC9
Leadership seems to have changed frequently since 1950. This is most likely due to the electoral process of Luxembourg, which forces leaders to be responsive to the people since elections can be held often. It is important for leaders to remain popular, or they hill not receive sufficient votes in a given election to retain a leadership position. Michael Rasquin (party leader in 1951 and for many years prior), Paul Wilwertz (1959 chairman--many years prior). And Henry Cravatte--1960--held the leadership.
1.05 / 2.05&9; Legislative Instability and Strength
Instability is .83, AC9
Strength is .33 for 1950-56, AC9, and .33 for 1957-62, AC9
The Socialist representation remained remarkably stable during our period, ranging between 35 and 33 percent of the seats, with the latter figure constant from 1954 through 1962.
1.06 / 2.06&9;Electoral Instability and Strength
Instability is .03, AC5
Strength is .34 for 1950-56, AC6, and .33 for 1957-62, AC5
Reflecting their high degree of legislative stability, the Socialists fluctuated little in votes won at the polls during the elections of 1951, 1954, and 1959. Their high was the 35 percent for 1954, and their low was 33 percent won in each of the other elections.

Governmental Status Variables, 2.01-2.07
2.01 Government Discrimination
0, AC9
Since the Socialist Party has been in the government during most of our time period. It is unlikely to assume that it would do anything that would restrict its activities. For the years that it has been out of the government. No evidence of discrimination exists. The Democratic Party frequently has issued attacks in the press on the party, but these seem to be only opposition criticisms of the party in power.
2.02 Governmental Leadership
0 out of 7 for 1950-56, AC6
0 out of 6 for 1957-62, AC6
While the party has participated in the government during a majority of the years of our time period, it has never received sufficient electoral strength to assume a position of dominance. The position of dominance has always remained in the hands of the CSV.
2.03 Cabinet Participation
6 out of 7 for 1950-56, AC6
2 out of 6 for 1957-62, AC6
Because the party has received sufficient votes to be part of a coalition government, it has been represented in the cabinet. The decline in the number of years it served in the government in the second time period is a result of the improved position of the Democratic Party and a scandal in 1950 which saw one Socialist Minister being accused by the press of accepting illegal funds. The party participated continuously in the cabinet from 1951-50.
2.04 National Participation
5, AC6
From election statistics it was determined that the party does have national support, although it is spread unevenly across the country. The party, like the CSV, does much better in the South and center than in the East or North.
2.07 Outside Origin
6, AC8
The party was founded by a doctor and some other citizens who were listed but whose occupations here not given in the literature. Our consultant says that the party was founded by a doctor and intellectuals found support among labour leaders.

Issue Orientation Variables, 5.01-5.15
5.01 Ownership of Means of Production
0, AC8
The party, according to its own statements, does not believe in Communist state capitalism nor goes it believe in the corporate economic system. Rather it believes in the workers themselves having control of the means of production.
5.02 Government Role in Economic Planning
3, AC9 the Socialist
Party sees the role of the state as one of harmonizing the various group interests and actively pursuing programs which are to the benefit of the workers. Because it allows for public control and ownership of activities, its control is not complete. Hence, it is to be called upon to mediate in disputes that may arise.
5.03 Redistribution of Wealth
3, AC9
The party goes not seem to favor an immediate transformation of society to redistribute income, at least in practice. Its rhetoric may suggest that a violent and immediate change must occur. But the party seems to realize that this is not possible. Hence, it cooperates with the CSV in such things as economic expansion programs and advocates excess profit tax.
5.04 Social Welfare
5, AC9
The party is very much in favor of social welfare legislation. It feels that the state must protect the people from want. Since the party reentered the government in 1951, many social welfare bills have passed increasing pensions, etc. The party also attaches special importance to education and feels that it should be available to all.
5.05 Secularization of Society
0, AC8
The party is a lay party, but it cannot emphasize this fact in public since the country is so predominantly Roman Catholic. The party contends that socialism aims at spiritual freedom, that everyone should be entitled to pursue any religious beliefs he chooses, and that everyone should be free of any religious harassment.
5.06 Support of the Military
-5, AC9
The party recognizes the need for sore sort of a militia to protect the civilian population and for the security of major industries. However, it does argue for reform of the army structure, reduction of military service, and a reduction of Luxembourg's manpower commitment to Western European defense system. It sees disarmament as the means to peace.
5.07 Alignment with East-West blocs
-5. AC8
The party feels that Luxembourg should make a contribution to western European defense through such organizations as NATO. However. It insists that the support be in accordance with the internal capabilities of Luxembourg.
5.08 Anti-Colonialism
0, AC8
Even though the country is involved in no colonial relationships, the party has issued a statement rejecting all policies of imperialism and colonialism.
5.09 Supranational Integration
3, AC9
The party actively supports cooperative efforts of the various countries, especially when they work to improve the worker's standard of living. Also, the party believes that Socialists of all countries should stand together. The party feels that European unity should not lead to a weakening of democratic control which would suggest that national boundaries should not be eliminated.
5.10 National Integration
3, AC5
Our consultant says that the party advocates the strengthening of national influence on crucial economic sectors.
5.11 Electoral Participation
5, AC9
Voting is compulsory in Luxembourg.
5.12 Protection of Civil Rights
5, AC6
The party's only statement on this subject had to do with the interference with religion. The party odes not feel chat anyone or any institution hay interfere kith religion. Though no other statements here made, it seems reasonable to assume that the party would not advocate any other forms of discrimination. Our consultant says that the party also supports the integration of immigrants into the political system by conferring voting rights in local elections.
5.13 Interference with Civil Liberties
-3, AC6
Our consultant says that the party is opposed to all political censorship.
5.14 / 5.15 US-Soviet experts left-right ratings
US says 3, non-Communist left
Soviets say 2. A reformist party which enjoys influence among sectors of the workers and the petty Bourgeoisie.

Goal Orientation Variables, 6.01-6.55
6.00 Open Competition in the Electoral Process
4, AC1
The party seems to be exclusively oriented to open competition, although this choice of a code was made only because no information existed to indicate that the party ever attempted to restrict other parties' activities. The party is often mentioned in newspaper accounts of the campaign activities, and no mention or charge was ever made by the other parties (outside of the usual campaign rhetoric) that the party was restricting the opposition's activities.
6.10 Restricting Party Competition
0, AC7
As mentioned above, no evidence exists to indicate that the party has ever tried to restrict the activities of opposition parties.
6.20 Subverting the Political System
0, AC9
As a frequent government party, the Socialists have little incentive for subversion.
6.30 Propagandizing Ideas and Program
6.31--2. AC6.
The party publishes a newspaper for the general party as hell 4s one for the youth of the party.
6.32--0, AC3.
There is no evidence of party schools.
6.33--2, AC6.
The party publishes resolutions which generally cone from the party congresses.
6.34--2, AC6.
6.50 Providing for Welfare of Party Members
No information.

Autonomy Variables, 7.01-7.05
7.01 Sources of Funds
7, AC6
Our file contains no information on sources of funds. Our consultant states that, between elections, the party gets its funds from dues and elected officials. During campaigns, the labor movement also contributes funds, but how much is not known.
7.02 Source of Members
5, AC3
The party is closely allied kith the general workers union which comprises 70 to so percent of all organized labor in the country. It seems reasonable to assume chat some of the Socialist party members come from this group. But there is no evidence to suggest that one has to be a member of one organization to be a member of the other.
7.03 Sources of Leaders
2, AC5
Our file contains no information on sources of leaders. Our consultant says that the leadership is composed mainly of intellectuals and labor leaders from both manual and white-collar occupations.
7.04 Relations with Domestic Parties
4 for 1950-56, AC8
5 for 1957-62, AC8
The party participates as a coalition partner in the government whenever it can, though it has never achieved a position of dominance over the CSV. In 1959 when the party could not agree on a new coalition program kith the CSV, it dropped out of the government and became part of the parliamentary opposition kith the Communists.
7.05 Relations with Foreign Organizations
4, AC6
The party belonged to the Socialist International throughout our time period. And the party feels that Socialists have to work together. However, the party has been very critical of other socialist parties in other countries.

Organizational Complexity Variables, 8.01-8.07
8.01 Structural Articulation
9, AC7
There are regular meetings of the various party organizations. Such as the National Executive Committee and the Party General Council. The Party Congress meets annually and it elects the National Executive Committee of the party. Other organs, such as the various party committees and the Party General Council, also meet. Method of selection to some positions is indeterminate. But in other cases members are either appointed or elected.
8.02 Intensiveness of Organization
3, AC5
One mention is made of a Socialist section in a suburban area and there is also a reference to local patty units. Our consultant states that sections are organized to cover a municipality.
8.03 Extensiveness of Organization
No information.
8.04 Frequency of Local Meetings
3, AC5
Our consultant reports that the 1973 party statutes specify meetings at least twice a year for sections.
8.05 Frequency of National Meetings
Not possible to determine how often the National Committee meets.
8.06 Maintaining Records
7, AC5
The party publishes a party magazine covering party attitudes towards various subjects. A paper for socialist youth is also published. In addition to this the party maintains lists of candidates (although no evidence states that these are general membership lists) and also issues resolutions and platforms. A party history has been written, thus the party probably has a good archive or research division.
8.07 pervasiveness of organization
7, AC6
According to one source, the general workers union is "closely connected' kith the Socialists. What this actually means cannot be determined, but the union does constitute 70 to 80 percent of organized workers. So some influence should exist. The fact that p paper for Socialist youth is published indicates that some support from youth is acquired, but no evidence was found of institutional support.

Organizational Power Variables, 9.01-9.08
9.01 Nationalization of Structure
The National Party Congress appears to be the ultimate authority in terns of determining party policy. Local and regional units are consulted and represented, but the congress itself makes the decisions. Various executive committees are chosen from this group. The extent to which the national organizations act on the local organs cannot be determined.
9.02 Selecting the National Leader
7, AC6
The Chairman, Vice-chairman, Treasurer, and Secretary of the party are appointed by the Executive Committee which is elected by the delegates to the Party Congress who are representatives of the local and regional organizations.
9.03 Selecting Parliamentary Candidates
5, AC6
The literature in our file contains no information concerning the selection of candidates. Our consultant states that candidates for the districts are proposed by the district assembly. However. This list must be approved by the party director and, in case of contestation. By the general council.
9.04 Allocating Funds
No information.
9.05 Formulating Policy
3 for for 1950-56, AC3
3 for for 1957-62, AC6
For the first period no information was available, but the procedure would presumably be the same though no substantive evidence exists to support this guess. For the second period. The adoption of a new program was being considered. A draft of the program was prepared by the party executive in cooperation kith various special party committees on various subjects. The general council, which was enlarged for this activity and to whom the first draft was submitted. Appointed a drafting committee to work out a second draft for submission to the next party congress. This second graft would be submitted to the local units for consideration.
9.06 Controlling Communications
Information does exist in the file on the party communications, but it is not sufficient to determine the locus of control of that media.
9.07 Administering Discipline
4, AC6
There is no discussion of the administration of discipline in our file. Our consultant states that the parliamentary fraction is controlled by the party directorate. The control commission and above all, by the general council. In the party directorate. There can (since 1973) only be 5 members of government, parliamentary fraction or council of state. In order to preserve the party's autonomy.
9.08 Leadership Concentration
3, AC8
Leadership lies in the Executive Committee of the party which appoints the four major offices of the party, Chairman, Vice-chairman, Secretary, and Treasurer. Not all decisions can be made by this group or the party executive, since policy like the new program was submitted to the local units of the party.

Coherence Variables, 10.01-10.06
10.01 Legislative Cohesion
During the first time period. The party seemed to be highly cohesive since the Democratic Party charged that unity in the CSV-SAP alliance was maintained at the expense of the people. This unity between the parties would suggest strong internal unity to maintain the alliance. In the second tine period, the young Socialists split with the party on the military question which had previously unified the party. This would seem to weaken the cohesiveness of the party. The clash occurred between the young Socialists and the party leadership at a party congress, but it is not possible to determine what effect this had on parliamentary voting behavior.
10.02 Ideological Factionalism
1, AC3
The ideology of the party had been fairly well established in the initial principles of the party during its inception. However, questions of ideology would most likely come up in discussions of the party programs which take place in the National Congress of the party, hence they are subject to debate, but no factions were found to exist during our time period. The Social Democrats split in 1971. However, was due to ideological and personal reasons. The majority of the Congress disapproved the party directorate which forbade coalitions with Communists on a local, municipal level. After the split, ideological questions -what is socialism and now to build it - became again acute.
10.03 Issue Factionalism
1 for for 1950-56, AC3
3 for for 1957-62, AC6
During the first time period no factions appear, even though issues are subject to debate. However, in the second time period the party experienced internal problems over the military question and other program differences which caused the young Socialists to split with the party over the military question. Debates also occurred between the workers of the party and the middle class members over the other program differences.
10.04 Leadership Factionalism
1, AC3
Open competition for the position of party leader is not evident, and no mention is made of any covert process. However, our consultant advises that during our tine period there were personal followings for Michael Rasquin, Jean Fohrmann, and Pierre Vrier.
10.05 Strategic or Tactical Factionalism
No information.
10.06 Party Purges
0, AC9
No evidence of any purges was found in the literature during our time period, but our consultant says that one-third of the members were expelled in 1971.

Involvement Variables, 11.01-11.06
11.01 Membership Requirements
2, AC3
Dues may be required for membership in the party, but this is subject to question because of a translation problem (beitrag may mean either dues or contribution). The translation dues is probably correct, but there is no other evidence to confirm or deny this.
11.02 Membership Participation
It is virtually impossible to determine in which category most members of the party fall. Evidence that party militants exist can be found, but their relative strength cannot be determined. Local, regional, and national meetings are held. But again it is impossible to determine the number of participants.
11.03 Material Incentives
No information.
11.04 Purposive Incentives
No information.
11.05 Doctrinism
2, AC3
The party principles are published and party newspapers to exist so it can be said that literature does exist which contains party doctrine. Which often reflects the writings of Marx, Engels, Bernstein, and Jaures.
11.06 Personalism
0, AC3
There is no evidence to suggest that any substantial portion of the party militants are devoted followers of particular leaders.