Path: Table of Contents > Essay on Party Politics > Party 264
Dutch Anti-Revolutionary Party, 264
Variables and Codes for 1950-1962
For the concepts and variables below, use these links to Political Parties: A Cross-National Survey:
Governmental Status
Issue Orientation
Goal Orientation
Organizational Complexity
Organizational Power
Organizational Coherence
Membership Involvement
The "ac" code is for "adequacy-confidence"--a data quality measure ranging from 0 (low) to 9 (high)

Institutionalization Variables
, 1.01-1.06
1.01 year of origin and 1.02 name changes
1878, AC9
0, AC9
The ARP was founded in 1878 (some say 1879) as a mass movement of Calvinist followers of Dr. Abraham Kuyper. In this year, Kuyper published a paper containing the principles of the Anti-Revolutionary Party and convened the party's first congress. The name of the party has remained the same since its inception.
1.03 organizational discontinuity
1, AC7
The ARP experienced numerable splits throughout its history, but only one occurred during our time period. In 1944, a small extremist group split away from the ARP and later emerged as the Political Reformed League, which failed to win any seats during our time period. Those splits which the party experienced were due to theological considerations rather than political questions. No mergers occurred during our time period, either.
1.04 leadership competition
16, AC6
In keeping with our conception of "legitimate" leadership of the party, we regard the chairman of the party executive, chosen by a deputies meeting or party congress, as the leader of the ARP instead of the leader of the parliamentary delegation in the lower chamber of the legislature. The information in our file is not precise concerning the dates on which this position changed occupants, but it is clear that J. Schouten opened our period as party chairman, was succeeded briefly by A. B. Roosjen (around 1956), and was followed the next year by T. W. P. Berghuis, who served out our period. For the first half of our time period, Schouten was also party leader in the lower chamber, enhancing his authority. For the second half of our period, however, the parliamentary leadership was in the hands of J. A. M. J. S. Bruins Slot.
1.05 legislative instability
Instability is .13, AC9
The ARP strength in the national legislature steadily declined during our time period. Just 13 percent of the seats was held by the ARP in 1950, and 9 in 1962.
1.06 electoral instability
Instability is .07, AC9
The percentage of votes won by the ARP steadily declined during our time period, ranging from a high of 11 percent in 1952 to a low of 9 percent in 1960 .

Governmental Status Variables, 2.01-2.07
2.01 government discrimination
0 for 1950-56, AC6
0 for 1957-62, AC6
No evidence suggests any government discrimination either for or against the ARP, and our consultant concurs.
2.02 governmental leadership
0 out of 7 for 1950-56, AC9
0 out of 6 for 1957-62, AC9
The position of prime minister of the Netherlands was filled by a Labor Party representative, Drees, from 1948-58, and by representatives of the Catholic People's Party, Beel and de Quay, from 1959-63.
2.03 cabinet participation
5 out of 7 for 1950-56, AC9
6 out of 6 for 1957-62, AC9
The ARP was excluded in the formation of cabinet coalitions during the years of 1950-51. In 1952 and in every coalition thereafter during the time period, the ARP placed at least one representative in a cabinet position.
2.04 national participation
5, AC6
Based on a 1956 survey (sample size of 1234), the Anti-Revolutionary Party's average deviation of votes from the population distribution is 6.25. The ARP is primarily a national party, but owing to its Calvinist basis, is weaker in the catholic south than in other regions.
2.05 legislative strength
Strength is .12 for 1950-56, AC9,and .09 for 1957-62, AC9
The ARP strength in the national legislature steadily declined during our time period. Just 13 percent of the seats was held by the ARP in 1950, and 9 in 1962.
2.06 electoral strength
Strength is .10 for 1950-56, AC9,and .09 for 1957-62, AC9
The percentage of votes won by the ARP steadily declined during our time period, ranging from a high of 11 percent in 1952 to a low of 9 percent in 1960 .
2.07 outside origin
8, AC7
The ARP was formed in the late 1870's by leaders of the Calvinist church, especially those already involved in politics and members of parliament . The party considers itself to have been formed through a mass movement of private citizens, but it is obvious that the party was created in the interests of the Calvinist church.

Issue Orientation Variables, 5.01-5.15
5.01 ownership of means of production
3, AC7
The ARP opposes nationalization of industry and seems to have advocated the return to private interests of some government-owned industries. The party does favor the granting of state aid in creating new industry.
5.02 government role in economic planning
1, AC5
The ARP is much less opposed to government economic planning than was characteristic of the party prior to the second world war. The party still opposes extensive government activity in this area, but limited planning is now supported.
5.03 redistribution of wealth
3, AC8
The ARP and most of its supporters (according to a survey) oppose any large change in the distribution of wealth. The party favors government inactivity in this area and believes that such "charity" is within the sphere of charitable organizations such as the church.
5.04 social welfare
4, AC8
The ARP opposes compulsory programs of profit sharing and any type of state operated welfare system. The party is content to leave social welfare in the hands of the private sector. The big exception to this rule is the party's advocacy of a government social insurance program. While the party favors the transfer of state welfare to welfare "corporations" independent from the government, it proposes a new program of social welfare. This unusual discrepancy is the basis for the assigned code.
5.05 secularization of society
3, AC8
The concept of a separated but cooperating church and state guides the ARP in its policy. The party was originally formed in part because of a state-church conflict over schools. The party favors state support of parochial schools and has unsuccessfully advocated bible teaching within the public school system.
5.06 support of the military
5, AC5
Since the ARP advocated the existence of a strong army, as well as a strong military alliance with the west, and since the party yearned for the return of a powerful Dutch nation comparable to the colonial period, the party rated as quite pro-military, during our period.
5.07 alignment with east-west blocs
5, AC9
The ARP favors the maintenance and strengthening of the NATO alliance with continued Dutch participation.
5.08 anti-colonialism
5, AC7
Throughout the controversy over New Guinea, the ARP maintained its position advocating continued Dutch sovereignty over the colony and military protection of the area from possible Indonesian attack. The party denounced plans of Dutch-Indonesian compromise and those favoring a United Nations trusteeship over the territory. However, in 1961, the party altered its stand and proposed Dutch-Indonesian talks to resolve the problem. But this was too late in our time period to affect the coding.
5.09 supranational integration
1, AC7
While the ARP advocated the furthering of European integration and unity, the party opposed any plan which might cause some loss of state identity or independence. Therefore, it is probable that the party favors integration in the form of great cooperation in military and economic matters but less cooperation in political integration.
5.10 national integration
1, AC6
The ARP supports the concept of a decentralized but unified state. The party advocates an increase in power of local and regional authorities.
5.11 electoral participation
5, AC5
Although the ARP took a more democratic position on the extension of the franchise around the turn of the century than did the other major protestant party, the Chu, one source states that the ARP party paper, "Trouw," favored divine sovereignty over popular sovereignty and an editorial as recently as 1961 spoke of the "objectionable doctrine of popular sovereignty." Our consultant, however, states that this is a theological rather than a political position and that the party favors popular elections of government.
5.12 protection of civil rights
1, AC3
One source states that the ARP newspaper, "Trouw," reminded its readers of the party's opposition to the principles of the French Revolution. An editorial as recently as 1964 was said to have criticized the ideas of "liberty, equality, and fraternity." Although no specific information was presented on the issue, it is inferred from this basic posture that the ARP would not favor government action to prevent social discrimination against minorities, which is involved in the issue of civil rights.
5.13 interference with civil liberties
3, AC5
Since the ARP supports the Dutch system of political media, the party probably recognizes the right to speak freely concerning political matters. However, the party also believes that the ten commandments of the Bible should be enforced by the government, and presumably this includes prohibition of certain expressions of questionable morality.
5.14 / 5.15 us--soviet experts left-right ratings
US says 1, conservative
Soviets say 1, represents the interests of the conservative elements of the bourgeoisie and landowners. The party advocates supremacy of church over the government and the strengthening of private ownership and free enterprise.

Goal Orientation Variables, 6.01-6.55
6.00 open competition in the electoral process
4, AC9
The ARP relies solely on open competition within the electoral system in placing its representatives in government positions. The ARP participated in every election during our time period.
6.10 restricting party competition
0, AC8
No evidence suggests that the ARP orientation includes the restriction of competition. The party relies upon open competition within the electoral process.
6.20 subverting the political system
0, AC8
The ARP has enjoyed many successes and endured many failures during its history and is not oriented towards subverting the political system. The ARP has cooperated in the formation of cabinet coalitions throughout our time period.
6.30 propagandizing ideas and program
6.31--1, AC4. Protestant newspapers and radio-television associations are supported by ARP members, and their directories are interlocking, but the media are not directly owned nor operated by the party.
6.32--0, AC5. The ARP owns a political library, but operates no schools.
6.33--2, AC5. Platforms are passed every four years by the ARP, and resolutions are probably even more frequently passed.
6.34--2, AC5. The ARP published a monthly periodical for its members. This magazine often served as a position paper for the party. Our consultant advises that the party also published a weekly periodical.
6.50 providing for welfare of party members
6.51, 6.52, 6.53, 6.54--AC1. No information.
6.55--1, AC4. The Protestant Radio-TV Association provides entertainment as a service.

Autonomy Variables, 7.01-7.05
7.01 sources of funds
7, AC6
Approximately 90 percent of the funds available to the ARP are derived from membership dues (12 guilders annually from each member).
7.02 source of members
5 (sector 06), AC9
Membership in the ARP is entirely direct, but most members belong to the Calvinist church.
7.03 sources of leaders
1 (sector 06), AC8
Leaders of the ARP nearly all have a Calvinist background. Many have been educated at the Free Calvinist University, established in the 19th century by the Calvinist church and founders of the ARP.
7.04 relations with domestic parties
4, AC9
The ARP participated in government coalitions, and therefore weaker parliament coalitions, from 1952-62 for 11 of our 13 years.
7.05 relations with foreign organizations
4, AC6
The ARP belonged to the NEI through an Equipe in conjunction with the Catholic People's Party and the Chu.

Organizational Complexity Variables, 8.01-8.07
8.01 structural articulation
11, AC8
The ARP is quite orthodox in its organizational structure, and many major national organs can be identified, including the deputies meeting, party council, executive committee, daily executive, central committee, and parliamentary group. Each organ is characterized by prescribed selection procedures and specific functional responsibilities.
8.02 intensiveness of organization
4, AC3
The ARP seems to be organized at the local level on what amounts to a ward basis.
8.03 extensiveness of organization
6, AC3
Since the ARP is highly national in character and is noted for its good organization, the party probably is very thorough in its coverage. Local organizations probably exist in every region.
8.04 frequency of local meetings
No information.
8.05 frequency of national meetings
5, AC6
The governing body of the ARP is considered to be the central committee, which normally meets every two months or 6 times per year. Occasionally the committee will meet more often.
8.06 maintaining records
16, AC6
The ARP publishes a monthly periodical which can be considered party propaganda. In addition, the party supports a Protestant Newspaper and Radio- TV Association which often speak on behalf of the party. The ARP information institute is an excellent political library, serving as an archive. Since the ARP collects dues and sends its periodical to members, good lists are probable.
8.07 pervasiveness of organization
13, AC7
The ARP has penetrated many sectors of society (including youth, women, labor, farmers, employers, and retailers), but the party has little control over the organizations since they do not own nor operate them, and membership in them is not considered to be large compared with other, non-protestant, organizations.

Organizational Power Variables, 9.01-9.08
9.01 nationalization of structure
5, AC6
The ARP is quite hierarchical in structure and includes the party leader and central committee at the national level, regional electoral associations, and local party organizations.
9.02 selecting the national leader
3, AC6
The party leader is chosen by the deputies meeting, which is a congress representing each of the regional electoral associations.
9.03 selecting parliamentary candidates
6, AC6
The regional electoral associations may draw up candidacy lists which are submitted to the central committee for alteration. The associations then must approve these changes (lists are always approved in practice) before they are submitted to the deputies meeting for a final vote.
9.04 allocating funds
6, AC3
Since the ARP publishes an official party budget which is national, allocation of funds is most likely national as well.
9.05 formulating policy
7 for 1st half, AC8
6 for 2nd half, AC6
The literature in our file published before 1956, when Schouten held both positions of party chairman and party leader in the second chamber, stressed the power of the party leader and the devotion of his following. When these positions were separated during the second half of our period, however, policy formation became less centralized. One source notes that the ARP shift on its New Guinea policy in 1961 was announced in parliament by Bruins Slot, the leader in the lower chamber, but was explained by Berghuis, the party chairman, as the result of deliberations among top-level leadership.
9.06 controlling communications
5, AC5
The ARP has a limited amount of control over the protestant media in that they have interlocking directorates, and this control seems to be at the national level. However, the protestant media are not regarded as very influential.
9.07 administering discipline
0, AC3
As with most other Dutch parties, the ARP does not seem to have any means of administering discipline other than exclusion from candidacy. An ARP parliamentarian may vote against party lines without even this punishment if his vote does not deny a basic party position and if he informs the party leader of his plans.
9.08 leadership concentration
6 for 1st half, AC7
3 for 2nd half, AC5
It seems clear that there was a greater concentration of leadership power in the first half of our time period when Schouten held both positions of party chairman and party leader in the second chamber. During the second period, it seems unlikely that Berghuis and Bruins Slot, holding the two positions respectively, together could wield the influence that Schouten had commanded, and the members of the executive probably needed to be involved in major decisions. (see the discussion for variable 9.05.)

Coherence Variables, 10.01-10.06
10.01 legislative cohesion
.90, AC5
The party seems to be highly cohesive as a group in parliament, and nearly completely so. Seldom does an ARP parliamentarian vote against the party line.
10.02 ideological factionalism
5, AC7
The ARP is a religious party which draws members of the Calvinist church who may belong to either the conservative or liberal blocs. Within the party, debate often occurs concerning the party's position on class questions, and identifiable conservative and liberal wings exist, both of which contain a sizable number of adherents. These debates usually culminate with a compromise within the party.
10.03 issue factionalism
1, AC4
The conservative and liberal blocs within the ARP often divide over class issues, but these factions seem to be transient in character as the issue arises and disappears. Those issues which are of longer duration normally are solved by means of a compromise within the party.
10.04 leadership factionalism
0 for 1st half, AC5
1 for 2nd half, AC3
Our information file contains no discussions of leadership factionalism within the ARP. There certainly seemed to be an absence of leadership contests dung the first half of our period, when Schouten was both party chairman and leader in the second chamber. But it is inferred that this situation changed somewhat during the second half of the period when the leadership was divided between the party executive and the parliamentary group.
10.05 strategic or tactical factionalism
0, AC3
There is no mention of any factional tendencies occurring within the ARP concerning strategy or tactics.
10.06 party purges
0 for 1st half, AC5
0 for 2nd half, AC5
No evidence suggests any involuntary departures from the ARP during our time period.

Involvement Variables, 11.01-11.06
11.01 membership requirements
3, AC5
Since membership dues are collected and an ARP periodical is sent to each member, membership lists are probable and registration likely.
11.02 membership participation
2, AC3
Although little information is available, it seems likely that most ARP members are marginal, attending occasional meetings and performing some activity for the party at some time. The ARP attempts to draw members to meetings by providing entertainment and using church facilities.
11.03 material incentives
0, AC3
Militants probably are not motivated by material incentives.
11.04 purposive incentives
1, AC3
Purposive incentives may motivate many militants. The ARP is a religious party and draws those who favor a Calvinist government.
11.05 doctrinism
1, AC8
The ARP was formed by Kuyper who also established the basic doctrine of the party, drawing heavily upon the works of his predecessor, Calvinist leader Groen van Prinsterer. References to the works of these men are common.
11.06 personalism
1, AC3
Because the party leader is placed in an elevated status, his personality probably draws many militants.