Path: Table of Contents > Essay on Party Politics > Party 145
Greek United Democratic Left, 145
Variables and Codes for 1950-1962
For the concepts and variables below, use these links to Political Parties: A Cross-National Survey:
Governmental Status
Issue Orientation
Goal Orientation
Organizational Complexity
Organizational Power
Organizational Coherence
Membership Involvement
The "ac" code is for "adequacy-confidence"--a data quality measure ranging from 0 (low) to 9 (high)
party name and code number
Greek United Democratic Left, 145
Eniaia Demokratiki Aristera, EDA
Information base and researchers
The information base for party politics in Greece consists of 509 pages from 45 documents, with 98 pages or 19 percent pertaining to the EDA. George Antunes indexed the literature. Alan Kaplan coded the variables.

Institutionalization Variables, 1.01-1.06
1.01 year of origin and 1.02 name changes
1951, ac8
0, ac6
In 1946, the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) was outlawed by the government. The party's politburo and many members left or were exiled from Greece during and after the civil war. The civil war was fought by the EAM, the military-political front of the KKE. After the civil war, in 1951, a group of leftist political parties merged to form the EDA. The largest of these parties was one which had direct linear ties to the KKE and EAM. Therefore, the EDA was regarded by the authors as the legal arm of the KKE. Many of the members of the EAM were members of the EDA, and the EDA followed the directives and policy statements of the exiled KKE politburo. The EDA remained an active force in Greek politics from its founding in 1951 until it was outlawed in 1967. Although it competed in several elections under different names as part of electoral coalitions (for example, Democratic Union, pame) the EDA did not experience any name changes.
1.03 organizational discontinuity
0, ac6
no discontinuity was apparent in the EDA. The party was considered a well-disciplined solid block of sympathizers and activists.
1.04 leadership competition
2, ac8
For the EDA, the leadership did not change between 1950 and 1962. Passalides remained its leader. However, the KKE, the exiled Communist Party of Greece in control of the EDA, experienced a leadership change twice during the period. The first came in 1956 when grozos pushed zachariades out. The second occurred just at the end of the period when koliyiannis took over for grozos. The leadership changes for the KKE are important for they influenced the history of the EDA.
1.05 / 2.05 legislative instability and strength instability is .96, ac6
Strength is .01 for 1st half, ac6 and .17 for 2nd half, ac7
Some sources credit the EDA with 7 percent of the seats in the 1950 legislature, but these deputies are regarded instead as a forerunning group which later was aligned with the EDA. According to our interpretation, the party won its first seats in 1951, when it took 4 percent. But then it failed to win any seats in 1952. It took 6 percent in 1956, as part of a coalition, climbed to 26 percent in 1958, and dropped to 8 percent in 1961. The fluctuation in legislative seats won was due largely to changes in the electoral laws, which were revised to hamper the EDA.
1.06 / 2.06 electoral instability and strength instability is .50, ac7
Strength is .10 for 1st half, ac5 and .19 for 2nd half, ac9
The EDA did not contest the 1950 election, which was held before it was formed. It received about 10 percent of the vote in both the 1951 and 1952 elections, which it contested on its own. But in 1956 its identity was submerged in the Democratic Union, which involved at least five parties. In 1958, it again contested the election under its own banner, taking 24 percent of the vote. Although it ran in coalition with the national agrarian party in 1961, it is judged to have retained its identity better than in 1956 and is credited with winning 15 percent of the vote.

Governmental Status Variables, 2.01-2.07
2.01 government discrimination
-5, ac8
The governments of Greece discriminated against the EDA by manipulating the electoral systems, altering the procedures for determining election outcomes, and by harassing the meeting, business activities, and members of the EDA. The most notable examples occurred during 1958 when premier Karamanlis of the ERE began to suppress the EDA's propaganda mechanisms and in the 1952, 1956, 1958, and 1961 election laws.
2.02 governmental leadership
0 out of 7 for 1st half, ac9
0 out of 6 for 2nd half, ac9
The EDA did not participate in the governmental leadership of Greece.
2.03 cabinet participation
0 out of 7 for 1st half, ac9
0 out of 6 for 2nd half, ac9
The EDA did not participate in any cabinets during the period.
2.04 national participation
5, ac7
The EDA was a national party competing in all parties of Greece. Its success was highly variable over time and across regions.
2.07 outside origin
11, ac8
Since the EDA was formed in 1951, it was influenced by the outlawed KKE (Communist Party of Greece) and its exiled leaders. EDA was formed by a coalition of leftist political groupings under the leadership of the KKE and the EAM.

Issue Orientation Variables, 5.01-5.15
5.01 ownership of means of production
3, ac3
The EDA advocated the nationalization of some economic sectors of Greek society, especially the banking interests.
5.02 government role in economic planning
3, ac8
Although EDA's goals were not socialistic, the party favored an active governmental role in the economy. Its leaders advocated direct taxes, easier credit, joint state-private economic ventures, the development of agricultural cooperatives, and a revision of the economic priorities.
5.03 redistribution of wealth
no information
5.04 social welfare
1, ac6
The EDA favored social insurance programs to cover workers, craftsmen, and small businessmen. In 1958, they advocated a 30 percent increase in wages and a 50 percent increase in pensions for all employees.
5.05 secularization of society
-3, ac6
The EDA advocated monetary benefits for the clergy in Greece.
5.06 support of the military
-1, ac6
The EDA supported reductions in the military budget for the purpose of raising the standard of living by reallocating budget expenditures to other programs.
5.07 alignment with east-west blocs
1, ac8
The EDA expressed favoritism toward the Soviet union and opposition toward the u.s. And the west. It wanted closer economic and trade relations with the eastern bloc and a total re-examination of the so-called "protectorate " policy of the u.s. In regard to Greece. After the KKE leadership change in 1956, the opposition toward the u.s. Lessened in response to the end of Stalinism and the beginnings of Khrushchevism.
5.08 anti-colonialism
5, ac6
Although Greece was not involved in a colonial experience, the EDA charged that it was virtually an american protectorate. They therefore advocated complete independence and the complete withdrawal of U.S. and british military advisors.
5.09 supranational integration
-3, ac6
During the entire period, the EDA was against Greek membership in NATO and the EEC. However, after 1956, their attitude changed from favoring an immediate pullout from NATO to a more neutral stance favoring friendly relations with both the east and west blocs.
5.10 national integration
5, ac5
The EDA advocated the assimilation of all sub-areas into the national political culture. This policy was illustrated during the debates on unity of Greece and Cyprus. As to Cyprus, the EDA advocated "a free Greece united with a free Cyprus." after 1956, the support grew stronger. The leaders pledged their party to "unrelenting support of self-determination for Cyprus."
5.11 electoral participation
no information
5.12 protection of civil rights
no information
5.13 interference with civil liberties
no information
5.14 / 5.15 US--Soviet experts left-right ratings
US says 4, communist
Soviets say 3, the EDA was a coalition of socialist and left-democratic forces, containing varying ideological viewpoints--socialists, left-democrats, and communists.

Goal Orientation Variables, 6.01-6.55
6.00 open competition in the electoral process
3, ac8
The EDA was oriented to open competition. It had a genuine concern for seeking popular support and employed the strategies of nominating candidates, campaigning actively, and joining electoral coalitions to help defeat the party in power. However, there is some indication and evidence, discussed under variable 6.20, of subversive activities.
6.10 restricting party competition
0, ac3
The EDA did not restrict party competition during this period.
6.20 subverting the political system
1, ac7
Although the EDA was oriented to open competition and was not oriented to subverting the political process, party members did engage in some subversive activities. These activities included strikes and riots. There is also some evidence of EDA support for these extra-parliamentary activities and disturbances.
6.30 propagandizing ideas and program
6.31--2, ac9. The EDA frequently and constantly engaged in propagandizing its ideas and programs. The major party organ was "AVGI," the party daily newspaper which had the fifth highest circulation. Also, the KKE leadership broadcasted instruction, proposals and communist propaganda over the "voice of truth" radio station from bucharest, romania.
6.32--ac1. No information.
6.33--1, ac6. One source mentions that the EDA passed resolutions.
6.34--2, ac6. Programs were commonly issued by the party as part of their propaganda effort.
6.50 providing for welfare of party members
6.51, 6.52, 6.54, and 6.55, ac1. No information
6.53--1, ac6. The EDA only provided for social welfare when it interceded with the government on the citizens" behalf. The party hierarchy was well-developed and organized to deal with the problems and questions of the citizens. The party secretariat and the parliamentary deputies acted as the links between the citizen and the government.

Autonomy Variables, 7.01-7.05
7.01 sources of funds
7 , ac6
The bulk of the party's funds came from party sources. These included membership dues, over two-thirds of the deputies" salaries, party stores that sell imported goods from eastern Europe, and from so-called " friends of the party." trade unions also contributed and there were house-to- house solicitations by party members.
7.02 source of members
5 (sectors 01, 03), ac5
Membership in EDA was entirely direct. In 1958, 24 percent of the membership were lawyers and 16.4 percent had employee classifications. These were the two groups which contributed the most members.
7.03 sources of leaders
3 (sector 03), ac5
One source reports that the EDA candidates in the 1963 elections were composed of 23 percent lawyers and 18 percent intellectuals, which makes the professional and educational sectors dominant in the party. The leadership of the EDA was split between those with military backgrounds and those with professional backgrounds (lawyers and doctors). For example, Passalides was a doctor, and Sarafis and Hadjimihalis were generals of the Greek army.
7.04 relations with domestic parties
6, ac8
The EDA entered electoral alliances in 1956 (the Democratic Union) and 1961 (Pame). These alliances did not require the EDA to sacrifice much autonomy, however, and it was clearly the dominant partner in the case of Pame.
7.05 relations with foreign organizations
2, ac7
The EDA had close relations with the exiled Communist Party of Greece (KKE) stationed in Bucharest and with the CPSU (Communist Party of Soviet union ). The links were strong, but the EDA did depart from their instructions and policies at certain times during the period. The KKE sent policy and strategy directives to the EDA leadership. There is also some evidence of monetary help from the CPSU and joint Soviet union/EDA propaganda during the 1958 election campaign.

Organizational Complexity Variables, 8.01-8.07
8.01 structural articulation
11, ac6
The EDA consisted of both governing and administrative organs which were at the national level. The membership on the governing organizations was prescribed. Their responsibilities as well as the responsibilities of the administrative organs were clearly specified.
8.02 intensiveness of organization
6, ac6
The EDA had the most intense organization of any political party in Greece. Its basic element was a cell-type organization located in villages, city neighborhoods, and at jobs.
8.03 extensiveness of organization
6, ac7
The EDA established and maintained party organizations throughout the country. Although the strength of the EDA was highly variable, the party organizations covered the country. For example, during 1958, over 6,000 party offices were claimed throughout the country.
8.04 frequency of local meetings
Although data is available on the size of the cells (three to seven members), no information is discernible as to the frequency of the local meetings.
8.05 frequency of national meetings
3, ac8
The EDA national committee (called the party congress) met every third year to elect the governing committee and decide the party's policies. The governing committee met twice a year.
8.06 maintaining records
4, ac7
The EDA expended much energy in publishing newspapers, resolutions, communiques, books, and many other types of printed material. Although no mention of membership lists is available, it can be assumed that lists were kept because dues were collected from the membership.
8.07 pervasiveness of organization
8, ac6
Information is only available on the labor sector of Greek society. Mostly during the second half, the EDA infiltrated several labor organizations. These included the democratic syndicalist movement and the federation of Greek maritime workers. Few members were enlisted, and the party's control was medium. In October 1958, three pro-EDA unions were admitted into the general confederation of Greek workers (GSEE) and one known communist was elected to GSEE's executive committee.

Organizational Power Variables, 9.01-9.08
9.01 nationalization of structure
5, ac6
The EDA had a discernible party hierarchy which ran from the national organs to regional organs to the cells. The parliamentary deputies belonged to an organ which controlled the EDA. This organ was subordinate to the other national organs which selected its composition.
9.02 selecting the national leader
6, ac7
The leader of the EDA was selected within the governing committee, which was one of the national executive committees. The ratification occurred every third year when the party congress elected the members of the governing committee.
9.03 selecting parliamentary candidates
9, ac6
Although local committees may have proposed candidates, most candidates were chosen by a national party committee--either the governing or executive committee. These committees also decide where the candidates were to run.
9.04 allocating funds
5, ac6
Funds were collected at all levels by the national organization. Its supervisory committee for discipline and finance was responsible for collection and allocation.
9.05 formulating policy
7, ac8
Policy positions were determined by a combination of party subgroups. Every third year the party congress voted on policies. In between, the executive committee (deputies are members) decided. There is some evidence that the exiled KKE sent policy directives to the EDA.
9.06 controlling communications
7, ac9
The EDA and its major backer, the exiled KKE, controlled several important and influential communications media. These were the "voice of truth " radio station, the party daily newspaper, AGVI, and other printed periodicals and newspapers.
9.07 administering discipline
4, ac6
The supervisory committee for discipline and finance, which was part of the top national executive committee, was responsible for administering discipline.
9.08 leadership concentration
4, ac7
Leadership was collectively centralized in the executive committee and secretariat of the EDA. Its president was very influential--but these committees as a whole were responsible for deciding strategy, policies, tactics , and ideology.

Coherence Variables, 10.01-10.06
10.01 legislative cohesion
no information
10.02 ideological factionalism
1, ac3
Ideological concerns were debated by the party leaders, but factions did not result.
10.03 issue factionalism
1, ac3
Issues were debated by the party leaders, but no factions resulted.
10.04 leadership factionalism
0, ac3
For the EDA, no leadership contests are discernible.
10.05 strategic or tactical factionalism
1, ac3
Electoral strategy and tactics were debated among the leadership of the EDA. No factions resulted in the EDA. However, in the parent group (KKE), factions did result, and an important leadership change took place in 1956 because of the strategic and tactical debates.
10.06 party purges
0 for 1st half, ac8
no purges are discernible.

Involvement Variables, 11.01-11.06
11.01 membership requirements
3, ac6
The members of the EDA paid dues and therefore registered as party members. There were formal membership requirements.
11.02 membership participation
5, ac6
There is some evidence which suggests that 9.3 percent of the population of Greece were "hard core" sympathizers who constituted a source of manpower to follow the directives of the party hierarchy. No information exists which analyzes the attendance practices of party members.
11.03 material incentives
1no information
11.04 purposive incentives
4, ac3
Almost all of the militants seem to have been motivated by purposive incentives. These included loyalty to communist principles and the final goal of the communist movement in Greece--the communist control of the country.
11.05 doctrinism
1, ac7
Marxist-Leninist ideology underlied the EDA's actions and goals. Reference to this body of literature was common but not continual or in its exact form. The EDA had no well defined ideology. It drew from communist ideology its basic long term ends and means.
11.06 personalism
0, ac3
Most militants (the 9.3 percent mentioned earlier) seem to have been motivated more by personal loyalty to the cause and end of communism than to any one individual. However, parliamentary candidates were drawn from the leadership of the old Communist Party and its military sections which participated in the civil war.