The information base for party politics in the Rhodesian and
Nyasaland Federation consists of 2,302 pages from 96 documents,
with 317 pages or 14 percent pertaining to the Northern Rhodesian
African National Congress. Howard Matthews indexed the literature
for retrieval. Donald Hook coded the variables. James Scarritt was
1.01 year of origin and 1.02 name changes
The African National Congress can trace its history to the
Federation of African welfare societies that was formed in the
copper belt in 1946. This was just a loose Federation of various
welfare societies for social reform. In 1948 they became the
Northern Rhodesian congress which had a more political overtone
than the Federation. When the goals of the party became truly
political, the name was changed in 1951 to the African National
1.03 organizational discontinuity
The ANC was continuous for our entire time period. However, the
party was torn by dissension in the middle and latter half of the
time period. A major split occurred in 1958 out of which the
zambian African National Congress was formed, later becoming the
United National Independence Party. Another group split off in
1962 to join the UNIP. There was another split in 1963 to form the
Peoples Democratic Congress.
1.04 leadership competition
Godwin Lewanika founded the party, but he was replaced in 1951 by
Harry Nkumbala by a vote of 19 to 5. Nkumbala resisted later
attempts to remove him from the party"s leadership. Kenneth Kaunda
provided the focus for Nkumbala"s opposition, and Kaunda
eventually led a major split from the party.
1.05 / 2.05 legislative instability and strength instability
strength is .00 for 1950-56, ac9, and .00 for 1957- 62,
The ANC did not contest elections for the federal assembly and
thus held no seats during our time period. Its instability score
is undefined. In the 1959 elections to the territorial legislative
council, the ANC won 1 of 22 seats, and it won 7 of the 37 seats
actually filled in an expanded legislative council in the 1962
elections. But these seats are not included in our scoring .
1.06 / 2.06 electoral instability and strength instability is
strength is undefined, ac9
No estimate can be made of the party"s electoral strength at the
federal level, for it did not contest the three elections in 1953,
1958, and 1959. Its instability score is based on its absence from
these elections. But in the 1962 territorial elections, the ANC
took 17 percent of the vote against 22 percent by the united
federal party (European) and 65 percent by its African rival, the
united national independence party.
Governmental Status Variables,
2.01 government discrimination
7 for 1953-57, ac7
0 for 1958-63, ac7
There is a marked shift in government policy toward the ANC from
the first and second halves of our time period. The government
harassed the ANC up to 1958. When zambia (later UNIP) became a
threat for African leadership, the government eased up on ANC due
to its more moderate stANCe. It viewed ANC as the lesser of two
2.02 governmental leadership
0 out of 5 for 1953-57, ac9
0 out of 6 for 1958-63, ac9
The ANC never participated in the federal government, and was
totally repressed up to 1958. In 1958, the constitution of
Northern Rhodesia was changed to give Africans a direct voice in
the legislative council. Following the 1962 elections, ANC and
UNIP were called on by the governor to form a coalition government
which lasted through 1963.
2.03 cabinet participation
0 out of 5 for 1953-57, ac9
0 out of 6 for 1958-63, ac9
The ANC did not participate in the government at the federal
2.04 national participation
The African National Congress of Northern Rhodesia was strictly a
territorial (Northern Rhodesia) party, it participated only in
territorial elections. It was an anti-Federation and independence
2.07 outside origin
The ANC was formed in 1948 by the leaders of minor legal social
organizations (the Federation of African welfare societies). It
was clearly outside of the government as no Africans participated
in Rhodesian government at that time.
Issue Orientation Variables, 5.01-5.15
5.01 ownership of means of production
5.02 government role in economic planning
5.03 redistribution of wealth
One of the major government actions to which ANC was opposed was
the land reapportionment act which gave most of the land to
Europeans. ANC was in favor of redistributing the land. Nkumbula
recommended the nationalization of the copper mines in order to
assure Africans equal opportunities and wages.
5.04 social welfare
ANC advocated universally applicable social welfare. They wanted
to raise the African level of living but couched this in universal
terms, to gain wider acceptANCe for their programs.
5.05 secularization of society
5.06 support of the military
5.07 alignment with east-west blocs
The ANC was an anti-Federation party not an anti-brtish party.
They wanted self governing status as part of the british
commonwealth but separate from southern Rhodesia. They felt the
colonial office was better equipped than the Federation to guide
Northern Rhodesia to independence. They feared the government
would remain in European hands under the Federation.
5.09 supranational integration
The ANC was totally against Federation with southern Rhodesia.
However, it did not mind the union with Nyasaland. Nkumbula was in
favor of union with thsombe"s congo regieme.
5.10 national integration
The ANC was a nationalist independence party for the territory of
Northern Rhodesia. They advocated a complete severANCe from the
Central African Federation and the establishment of a nation state
in Northern Rhodesia .
5.11 electoral participation
The ANC advocated the adoption of universal adult suffrage.
5.12 protection of civil rights
As an African rights party, ANC advocated both the outlawing of
discrimination broadly across social life and the provision for
5.13 interference with civil liberties
5.14 / 5.15 us--soviet experts left-right ratings
Goal Orientation Variables, 6.01-6.55
6.00 open competition in the electoral process
1 for 1st half, ac6
2 for 2nd half, ac6
African members of the legislative council were appointed until
1958. At that point the ANC presented a slate of candidates.
Before 1958 they worked for the appointment of ANC members to the
assembly by the African representative council.
6.10 restricting party competition
The ANC was not in a position to attempt the restriction of
6.20 subverting the political system
3 for 1st half, ac5
2 for 2nd half, ac5
Our consultant reports that ANC engaged in major demonstrations
against the implementation of Federation and numerous boycotts of
European ships during the first half of our period. Up until 1958,
the ANC worked for direct representation of Africans in the
legislative assembly. After this was accomplished, they relied
strictly upon open competition with other parties.
6.30 propagandizing ideas and program
6.31--1, ac6. ANC owned a paper (Kwasa) in Salisbury.
6.32--0, ac3. No mention made in material.
6.33--1, ac3. The ANC passed platform statements and resolutions
at its conference.
6.34--0, ac3. No mention made in material .
6.50 providing for welfare of party members
No mention made in material.
Autonomy Variables, 7.01-7.05
7.01 sources of funds
2 (sectors 01, 02), ac3
Most monies were raised locally, but no reference is given in the
literature to which sector of society raised it. As most Africans
were laborers or farmers, it seems to be these sectors.
7.02 source of members
There are no membership requirements mentioned in the literature.
Congress had more of a following than a set membership.
7.03 sources of leaders
1 (sector 03), ac3
Most of the ANC leadership came from an intellectual or
professional background. Many were educated overseas. The leaders
of ANC were educated far above the level of most Africans.
7.04 relations with domestic parties
7 for 1st half, ac6
4 for 2nd half, ac7
ANC was a completely autonomous party up to the ANC-zANC split in
1958. It allied itself twice with other parties after 1959, making
a voting alliANCe with the ufp and forming a coalition government
with UNIP. It was clearly the weaker member in both.
7.05 relations with foreign organizations
While ANC was nominally associated with the other congresses in
the Federation and the pan African movement, there were no formal
ties with either. The party was completely autuonmous in this
Organizational Complexity Variables,
8.01 structural articulation
Two national organs are mentioned in the literature, the annual
conference and the national executive. All party posts and
committees were elected from below.
8.02 intensiveness of organization
The ancillary is the basic unit of all Rhodesian politics. The ANC
organized on the ancillary level with a number of branches under a
8.03 extensiveness of organization
The party was successful in organizing branches with the exception
of the northwest territory and baratosland, but all its branches
were in Northern Rhodesia with less than 1/3 of the population in
8.04 frequency of local meetings
8.05 frequency of national meetings
The national conference meets once a year. The national executive
meets prior to each conference and as is deemed necessary to
conduct party business, but there is no mention of how often that
8.06 maintaining records
8.07 pervasiveness of organization
ANC had distinct ancillary groups such as the action groups, the
youth brigade, and the women"s league, but information as to the
strength of such organizations is not readily available.
Organizational Power Variables, 9.01-9.08
9.01 nationalization of structure
The annual conference and the national executive are the supreme
national party organs. However, party branches have defied them
successfully on such issues as boycotts and the ANC-zANC
9.02 selecting the national leader
Lewanika was the founding president of ANC. He was defeated in the
1951 party elections by nkumbula. Nkumbula w the leader for the
rest of the time period. He avoided repeated attempts to be
unseated at the party conferences.
9.03 selecting parliamentary candidates
9.04 allocating funds
9.05 formulating policy
Nkumbula was in clear control of the party and of policy
9.06 controlling communications
Our consultant says the ANC controlled no media.
9.07 administering discipline
Nkumbula administered the major disciplinary techniques. Nkumbula
was very autocratic. People who disagreed with him were either
ousted or quit the party. However, our consultant reports that
discipline was extremely sporadic. Most of the time a 0 coding
would have been justified.
9.08 leadership concentration
Nkumbula was clearly the undisputed leader of the party. He could
commit the party to a plan of action. He was recognized by all as
the party spokesman.
Coherence Variables, 10.01-10.06
10.01 legislative cohesion
The ANC did not participate in elections to the federal
legislature until 1962, when the Federation was in the process of
collapse. As a result, the party is uncoded on this variable. In
the 1959 elections to the territorial assembly, nkumbula won one
of 22 seats. Our consultant states that Nkumbala was replaced by
katilungu when nkumbula was jailed, and michello replaced
katilungu when katilungu was killed. In the 1952 elections, ANC
won five seats and two more in by-elections. There is no
information on the party"s cohesiveness in the legislature at the
very close of our period.
10.02 ideological factionalism
The ideological orientation of the party is pretty well agreed
upon. Minor ideological points are discussed at the convention,
but most factionalism is along issue and strategy lines.
10.03 issue factionalism
5 for 1st half, ac3
6 for 2nd half, ac7
The issue which precipitated the split of the UNIP from the ANC in
1958 was acceptANCe of the Northern Rhodesian constitution, which
reflected a basic division within the party on the question of
cooperation with the Europeans.
10.04 leadership factionalism
5 for 1st half, ac3
6 for 2nd half, ac7
Nkumbula"s leadership had become a point of contention in the
party. His moderate stANCe clashed with the increasingly militant
attitude of the younger leaders. The factionalism eventually
crystallized between nkumbula and Kaunda, who split from the party
in 1958 along with a sizable segment of the ANC activists.
10.05 strategic or tactical factionalism
5 for 1st half, ac3
6 for 2nd half, ac7
The question of party strategy revolved around that of immediate
action through boycott and other more forceful opposition to the
Federation and colonial government and that of more moderate and
restrained opposition. Nkumbula followed the more cautious
10.06 party purges
0 for 1st half, ac8
1 for 2nd half, ac5
A challenge to nkumbula"s leadership started building toward the
end of the first time period but did not erupt until the second
time period. Nkumbula purged or tried to purge various local
organizations to entrench his leadership.
Involvement Variables, 11.01-11.06
11.01 membership requirements
No membership requirements are mentioned in the literature.
11.02 membership participation
Most members seemed active even though the party had only nominal
membership. The ANC staged successful local boycotts, and action
teams are mentioned in the material.
11.03 material incentives
The ANC had no material incentives to give to members and African
parties were discriminated against by employers.
11.04 purposive incentives
Most party workers were purposively motivated by anti-Federation
and pro-independence objectives.
There is no mention of doctrine which party members use to justify
Most party militants were purposively motivated. Nominal members
were motivated by nkumbula"s and Kaunda"s charisma. While most
militants were purposively motivated, a large percentage foll0wed
Kaunda out of the party. However, this can be attributed more to a
similarity of objectives between Kaunda and the militants than to