Party name and code number United Federal Party, UFP, 071
Information base and researchers
The information base for party politics in the Rhodesia and
Nyasaland Federation consists of 2,302 pages from 96 documents,
with 900 pages or 39 percent pertaining to the United Federal
Party. Howard Matthews indexed the literature for retrieval.
Donald Hook coded the variables.
1.01 year of origin and 1.02 name changes
The Federal Party is considered here to be the predecessor of the
United Federal Party. The Federal Party was founded on August 7,
1953, for the purpose of running a slate of candidates in the 1953
elections. It consisted of the leaders of the government parties
in each of the three territories. The United Rhodesia and the
Federal parties combined in 1958 to form the United Federal Party.
In early 1963, the party again reverted to its previous name, the
Federal Party, as it served out the last year of the crumbling
1.03 organizational discontinuity
In 1958, the Federal Party merged with the United Rhodesia party
to form the United Federal Party, which we are treating as a
continuation of the former Federal Party. At the dissolution of
the Federation in 1963, the UFP itself dissolved into four
separate parties. At the federal level, the party was known once
more as the Federal Party. Its remnants in Southern Rhodesia
became the Rhodesia national party--in Northern Rhodesia, the
national progress party--and in Nyasaland, the Nyasaland
1.04 leadership competition
The leadership on the national level changed only once, when
Godfrey Huggins (Lord Malvern) retired in 1955. Roy Welensky was
the unanimous choice of the party congress as he was backed by
1.05 / 2.05 legislative instability and strength instability
is .10, ac7
strength is .65 for first half, ac7, and .81 for second half,
The UFP held 24 of the 35 seats in the assembly following the
first federal elections in 1953. It lost some seats in
by-elections, but following the 1958 elections the UFP held 46 of
the seats in an enlarged house of 59. In 1962, the UFP won 54 of
the seats, but virtually all the other parties, European and
African, boycotted the elections.
1.06 / 2.06 electoral instability and strength instability is
strength is .67 for first half, ac9, and .77 for second half,
Federal elections were held in 1953, 1958, and 1962. Because
almost all the other parties boycotted the 1962 elections, only
the first two were used in calculating the UFP strength. However,
even this is misleading, for the electorate was effectively
limited to Europeans and was less than 2 percent of the
population, which rose from 6 to 9 million during our time period.
Thus, these election returns greatly overestimate the UFP"s
strength in the population as a whole.
Governmental Status Variables,
2.01 government discrimination
1 for 1st half, ac7
1 for 2nd half, ac7
election laws in the Federation tended to favor European parties
such as the Federal Party. There were no references to the Federal
Party having access to the media. Until 1957, no party was allowed
access to the media.
2.02 governmental leadership
5 out of 5 for 1953-57, ac9
6 out of 6 for 1958-63, ac9
the UFP was the only governmental party during the Federation,
which ended in 1963. Huggins of the UFP was prime minister until
1955, when he was succeeded by Welensky.
2.03 cabinet participation
5 out of 5 for 1953-57, ac9
6 out of 6 for 1958-63, ac9
UFP was the only government party and therefore appointed all of
the cabinet posts until the end of the Federation.
2.04 national participation
6 for 1953-57, ac8
5 for 1958-63, ac6
the UFP was clearly a national party. In fact, it was the only
party which was truly national at least for the first half of the
time period. However, the UFP lost strength in the late stages of
the Federation, especially in Southern Rhodesia.
2.07 outside origin
the UFP was formed by the leaders of the legislatures in each of
the three territories, namely Huggins in Southern Rhodesia,
Welensky in Northern Rhodesia, and barrow in Nyasaland. For the
purposes of our coding, this is interpreted as being formed by
groups of legislators currently holding office.
Issue Orientation Variables, 5.01-5.15
5.01 ownership of means of production
while our file contained no information on this variable, our
consultant reported that the UFP supported existing government
ownership of railroads, power plants etc., but opposed expansion
of government ownership.
5.02 government role in economic planning
our file does not discuss this, but our consultant estimates a
con- moderate position for the UFP.
5.03 redistribution of wealth
the UFP was the governmental party. It advocated no change in the
status quo. The Federation was extremely segregated. It advocated
and practiced repression late in the time period.
5.04 social welfare
the UFP was split into factions. The largest faction believed in
ultimate integration, but believed that this would take a very
long time. They believed it was their duty to lead the blacks out
of ignorance. The other faction was strictly segregationist. The
party policy was to follow the status quo.
5.05 secularization of society
5.06 support of the military
in the absence of information from the file, our consultant states
that federal budget expenditures and legislative debates on them
reflected strong support for the military.
5.07 alignment with east-west blocs
party leaders frequently indicated the importance of Federation to
the west, and the government signed a defence treaty with south
Africa and Portugal.
1 for 1st half, ac8
1 for 2nd half, ac8
the UFP became very concerned with the issue of dominion status
after the dominion party pressed for independence. Ufp took a much
more moderate stand than the DP on the issue of independence.
5.09 supranational integration
5.10 national integration
the UFP was the party of Federation. It was specifically formed
for the purpose of pushing for the Federation of the three
territories. It was the governmental party of the Federation and
ran on platforms calling for the retention of the federal
structure in 1956, 1958, and 1962.
5.11 electoral participation
the UFP constantly kept the number of African voters low. The few
reforms carried out were very minor ones to placate the British
5.12 protection of civil rights
the UFP was a European party and is therefore very discriminatory.
It only took "civilized" Africans as members, and set very high
standards of " civilization."
5.13 interference with civil liberties
although the UFP supported an independent federal broadcasting
corporation and private ownership of newspapers, our consultant
advises that the UFP-controlled central, Northern, and Southern
Rhodesian governments strongly backed the denial of access to mass
media by African nationalists, a denial which was enforced by
private owners of newspapers and the federal broadcasting
5.14 / 5.15 US--Soviet experts left-right ratings
US says 2, center
Soviets say nothing
Goal Orientation Variables, 6.01-6.55
6.00 open competition in the electoral process
UFP was always in open competition with the other European
parties, but it passed franchise laws to stay in power over the
6.10 restricting party competition
the UFP goal orientation strategy had two faces. While it competed
openly with its European counterparts, it acted to suppress the
political effectiveness of African parties.
6.20 subverting the political system
as the UFP was the governmental party, there was no ned to subvert
the political process. They practically controlled it.
6.30 propagandizing ideas and program
6.31--0, ac3. No reference in the literature was made to the
existence of a party press. Radio and TV were government
6.32--0, ac3. No party schools were mentioned in the
6.33--2, ac8. The UFP debated issues at its national convention
and issued policy statements after each debate.
6.34--2, ac7. The UFP executive committee published a series
of position papers and put out occasional newsletters which cannot
reliably be called a position paper.
6.50 providing for welfare of party members
no reference to provision for social welfare in any of the
Autonomy Variables, 7.01-7.05
7.01 sources of funds
1 (sector 04), ac7
most of the party"s money came from the big business sector of
society, especially from the copper companies. This may amount to
as much as three fourths of the party income. The rest came from
private donations and party subscription.
7.02 source of members
party membership in the sphere of federal politics is a tenuous
concept due to the fluctuation of parties and party structure in
the Federation .
7.03 sources of leaders
7.04 relations with domestic parties
the UFP was strong during most of the Federation. It did not
really need other parties. The only other party with very similar
goals was the dominion party, which was the UFP"s main
7.05 relations with foreign organizations
there is no mention in the literature of any contact with outside
parties. There is really no international movement to which the
UFP could associate.
Organizational Complexity Variables,
8.01 structural articulation
three national organs existed--the finance committee, the
parliamentary caucus, and the standing committee (executive
committee). Membership in the organs was generally decided on the
basis of informal cooption.
8.02 intensiveness of organization
the basic unit of organization is the branch. There is at least
one in every electoral unit, with as many as five in some.
8.03 extensiveness of organization
out of 30 electoral districts, the UFP had 79 branches at one
time. Rural branches were rarer than those in metropolitan areas.
Because ordinary electoral districts covered the whole country but
not the whole population, they excluded the vast majority of
8.04 frequency of local meetings
meetings tended to vary in frequency according to the nature of
the particular branch. In certain metropolitan areas they meet
once a month on a set schedule, while in certain rural branches
meetings occurred two to three times a year.
8.05 frequency of national meetings
the information on the national organs of the UFP is surprisingly
scanty. It appears that there was a federal standing committee,
which numbered about 25, and a somewhat larger federal central
executive. From a mention that the party organization was
activated only for short periods before elections and from another
mention that the central executive had met only once to the end of
1956, it is inferred that national committee meetings of the UFP
were not frequent, probably less than once a year.
8.06 maintaining records
it does not appear that the UFP engaged in an extensive publishing
effort. It did issue a statement of program and principles at
least once, and reference was made to a party newspaper published
sporadically. There is no evidence at all that the party
maintained any type of research archive, at least not at the
federal level, and no brief was held for the quality of its
8.07 pervasiveness of organization
there is no mention of ancillary organizations of the UFP, if one
excludes the bulawayo action group, which was only a group of
about 30 businessmen in one city said to have influence in the
party through their financial contributions.
Organizational Power Variables, 9.01-9.08
9.01 nationalization of structure
Our consultant advises that a code of 3 is certainly the most
accurate coding with regard to federal/Southern Rhodesian
relations within the UFP. But perhaps 4 would be more accurate
with regard to federal/Northern Rhodesian and Nyasaland relations
within the party. Mulford describes federal supremacy over the
Northern Rhodesian party at the time of the 1962 election (see
either of his books--003 and 028). The UFP was a tightly knit
oligarchy, but not along the lines of formal party structure due
to the looseness and unwieldiness of the formal structure. The
territorial divisions of the party were largely autonomous.
9.02 selecting the national leader
leaders on the national and local level were selected by party
congresses which were the supreme bodies of the unit.
9.03 selecting parliamentary candidates
candidates were recommended by the branch to be included on the
national standing committee list. They were reviewed by
headquarters and sent back to the branch, which chose from the
9.04 allocating funds
the strain of financing an election was on the individual
candidate and his branch. Also, some of the funds he collected
were channeled upward to the national party for the maintenance of
the national offices.
9.05 formulating policy
most policy decisions were decided by the prime minister or the
cabinet. The rest were formed by the national convention.
9.06 controlling communications
newspapers were controlled by a chain. Radio and tv were
government controlled, with no political advertising allowed until
1958. There is no mention of party control of communications in
9.07 administering discipline
there were no accepted procedures for discipline in the party.
When conflict arose in the form of a power struggle or major
policy disagreement, the loser generally dropped out of the
9.08 leadership concentration
this was the government party, and the party president was always
the prime minister. Huggins and Welensky were both strong enough
to speak for the party.
Coherence Variables, 10.01-10.06
10.01 legislative cohesion
the UFP completely controlled the legislature. As this was a
parliamentary system and the party was strong, there was a
tendency toward high cohesion. However, the party had some serious
10.02 ideological factionalism
the basic ideological division with the UFP was based on social
rather than economic considerations. The social issue was race,
and factions developed over a liberal or conservative handling of
the African majority.
10.03 issue factionalism
the founding principle of the UFP was the indissolubility of the
Federation. However, the territorial components of the UFP,
especially that of Southern Rhodesia, were not as tied to the
Federation, certainly not at the expense of territorial authority.
The issue of territorial-federal relations was a consistent source
of factionalism within the UFP, and it eventually led to the
10.04 leadership factionalism
5 for 1st half, ac7
5 for 2nd half, ac5
leadership factionalism was intertwined with ideological
factionalism within the UFP, especially in the first part of our
time period. Todd, considered to be a liberal, was denied
leadership of the UFP after the united Rhodesia party merged with
the Federal Party. Moreover, he was ousted from his office of
prime minister in Southern Rhodesia, losing the leadership of his
party to whitehead, the new prime minister. Later, whitehead
clashed with Welensky, the party"s leader at the federal
10.05 strategic or tactical factionalism
there is no evidence of conflicts over strategy and tactics in the
10.06 party purges
0 for 1st half, ac3
0 for 2nd half, ac3
no purges were mentioned in the material.
Involvement Variables, 11.01-11.06
11.01 membership requirements
one source reports official membership figures but then says that
the figures were not reliable for the concept of membership was
too nebulous. It appears that there were no membership
11.02 membership participation
there are no references to membership duties in the literature. As
membership appears to be self-defined, membership participation
seems to be minimal. However, our consultant reports that election
meetings were frequent in the period preceding elections, and they
were well attended.
11.03 material incentives
one might suppose that material incentives would play some role in
the UFP for it was the governing party. Scarritt reports that the
African members of the UFP were motivated by material
11.04 purposive incentives
2 for 1st half, ac3
1 for 2nd half, ac3
it is expected that many of the UFP militants would be motivated
by the desire to preserve the Federation, at least during the
first part of our time period. Given the relative ease with which
the party disintegrated at the end, this incentive was devalued
for the second half of our period.
the literature makes no references to any body of party
0, ac3 there is some evidence that todd and probably Welensky
commanded some personal following, but not to the extent that
would qualify the UFP as a personalist party.