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authority to set goals, guide debate, or prescribe action. Although it is conceivable to think of party doctrine as enshrined solely in terms of an oral record, the existence of a written record seems necessary on a practical basis to support doctrinism in party affairs. The most essential element therefore is the existence of a written literature said to embody party principles or governmental philosophy. The more doctrinaire the party, the greater the reference to this literature. In the most doctrinaire parties, the function of interpreting the written record is associated with a special party office, whose holder assumes the role of party ideologist analogous to the role of a priest or ordained minister in an organized religion.

While empirical relationships may obtain between party "ideology" (as expressed in the issue orientation variables) and "doctrinism," these relationships are a subject for data analysis and are not assumed in conceptualizing this variable. It is logically possible for a "leftist" or "rightist" party to pursue its political objectives in a relatively pragmatic manner, without seeking to justify its actions in the light of a body of doctrine.

Operational Definition. The higher the score on this variable, the more doctrinaire and less pragmatic the party.


There is no discernible written literature to which party members refer in an effort to justify party activities.


There is a body of literature that can be said to embody party doctrine, and references to it are common but not continual.


There is a body of literature that can be said to embody party doctrine, and party members refer to it continually.


There is a body of literature that can be said to embody party doctrine, party members refer to it continually, and the party has a special role for the authoritative interpretation of doctrine.

Coding Results. Nearly all our parties could be evaluated for reliance on party doctrine, as measured by BVII05 and reported in Tables 12.5a and 12.5b. The significant correlation of .35 between BV1105 and AC1105 indicates that we were more confident when claiming party doctrine was important than when dismissing it as unimportant. According to our survey of the situation, just above half of the parties operate free of principles enshrined in scripture. At the other extreme, one party in ten not only refers to solemn writ but appeals for guidance in interpreting the word from learned professors of party literature.

TABLE 12.5a: Mid 1950s: BV11.05 Doctrinism

TABLE 12.5b: Early 1960s: BV11.05 Doctrinism


Basic Variable 11.06: Personalism

Although political parties are generally assumed to attract members and draw support on the basis of their positions on government issues, some parties are composed of members who are united more in support of a given candidate than in support of a given issue or set of issues. Speaking of Latin American parties in particular, Edelmann observes that the primary basis for most political parties in that area of the world is "personalism--the intense, unswerving allegiance to a dynamic leader." He states, "So strong has been the influence of leaders that most parties are identified by their names rather than by the official names of the parties" (1969, p. 350).

Personalism is another motivational basis for involvement in party activities. It might be included under a broad interpretation of "purposive incentives" (see variable 11.04), if the "purpose" of the party were interpreted as advancing the political fortunes of the party leader. But this interpretation is rejected to keep policy content uppermost in the purposive incentives variable.

Care was taken to distinguish between the natural tendency of party members to favor their own candidates over those of the opposition at election time. We are in-

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