TABLE 10.4a: Mid 1950s: BV9.04 Allocating
TABLE 10.4b: Early 1960s: BV9.04 Allocating
information and expertise requisite to
cogent policy formation are presumably available principally
at the top levels of party hierarchy. Nevertheless, parties
differ considerably on the extent to which lower organs
participate in policy making. Although there is some doubt
about their influence on ultimate party policy, constituency
associations within the British Labour Party, for example,
continually formulate and press resolutions upon the party
at its annual conferences. The program of the Indian
National Congress, on the other hand, is determined by a
Working Committee dominated by government officials.
Numerous personalistic parties constitute the extreme case
for the centralization of power in making policy as the
party position is expressed--or "revealed," as it were--by
the party leader.
"Policy" usually suggests the party's
position on substantive issues of government, but "policy"
can also refer to the party's handling of intraparty
affairs, such as campaign strategy. Our main concern in this
variable is to pinpoint the locus of power in determining
the party's position on substantive issues of government.
Our concern is limited to the determination of party policy
and not its implementation in government.
A high score on this variable corresponds to the
determination and promulgation of policy at elite levels of
the organization and is indicative of centralization of
power. The lowest applicable score was
for formulating policy is diffused throughout
the party; little or no structure is imposed on
this aspect of party activity.
stances are commonly determined by polling party
organizations enact policy resolutions, argue
them at the national level (usually the party
conference or convention), and frequently win
changes in party policy.
positions are formulated at the national level,
but they are submitted to lower levels of the
party (local or regional organizations) for
organizations often enact policy resolutions and
submit them for national consideration, but open
argument in behalf of the resolutions is not a
common practice, and decision on the resolutions
is not required.
positions are determined by a national party
congress, conference, or convention composed of
delegates from local or regional organizations;
policy positions may be stated provisionally by
individual party leaders, but approval of the
position by the party congress is required
before the policy statement is considered to be
effectively binding as party policy.
positions are determined by the national
committee, party council, or parliamentary party
organizations; these positions are regarded as
"party policy" without need for further approval
by other party organs.
positions are determined and announced by the
party leader or a small subgroup of the national
committee, for example, an executive committee
or "politburo." These positions are effectively
regarded as "party policy" without need for
approval by other party organs. (Note that a
distinction must be drawn between the leaders
policy--sometimes pronounced by a leader who
is also the nation's chief executive--and the
party's policy. With respect to the
United States, for example, the president is not
empowered to formulate or create party
policy, although he may implement it. The
distinction is whether the announced policy is
widely regarded as party policy or the personal
policy of the officeholder, acting in his
capacity as a governmental official and policy
Coding Results. The literature reveals enough of
the political process within parties to assess the locus