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Chapter 10: Centralization of Power (pp. 108-117), this is p. 109
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Local organizations, defined as constituency/municipal/commune/county level or lower, are the only discernible structural element in the party; these organizations may indeed demonstrate different forms of organization among themselves; there is no formal provision for higher party organs.


Local organizations remain the most discernible structural element in the party, but there are formal provisions for federation of local organizations that involve their representation in higher party organs at a regional or state level, although these organs are not effectively superior to the local organizations.


There are discernible regional party organs that exercise their authority over local organizations, but there are no formal national organs; nationwide coordination of party activities is handled, if it is attempted at all, through informal meetings of regional party leaders.


There are discernible national party organs that provide for formal representation of regional or state organs (or local organs in the absence of regional or state organs), but these national organs are not effectively superior to the regional ones which in practice can and do defy the national organization.


There are discernible national party organs that are more powerful than regional and local organizations, but these national organs themselves constitute competing power centers rather than a single peaked hierarchy; includes situations in which the parliamentary party organization challenges leadership of other organizations.


This is a discernible party hierarchy that runs from a single national council or executive committee through regional party organs down to local organizations; parliamentary organization is subordinated to national organs.


There is a discernible party hierarchy that has a single national council or executive committee at the top acting directly on the local organizations without interposing regional organizations; there are only national organs.

Coding Results. Tables and present the results of coding parties on BV901, "nationalization of structure." We coded about 80 percent of the parties on this variable, had adequate means for AC901, and found no significant relationship between BV901 and AC901. Nevertheless, the operationalization of this variable was somewhat wanting, as most of the parties were clustered at the upper end of the scale, with the top two positions embracing about 70 percent of the parties. Perhaps a scale that is more sensitive to distinctions among parties at this end of the continuum could be constructed. On the other hand, perhaps the scale was adequate but parties simply do not display much variation within the concept.

TABLE 10.1a: Mid 1950s: BV9.01 Nationalization of Structure

TABLE 10.1b: Early 1960s: BV9.01 Nationalization of Structure

Basic Variable 9.02: Selecting the National Leader*

At a minimum, a party's "national leader" is the person who acts as the primary spokesman of the party in the country's communications media. At maximum, the national leader may not only fulfill the symbolic function of personifying the party, but he may also be the real locus of power in the party and its effective leader, issuing orders that are regarded as "legitimate" by party members.

This variable isolates the set of procedures used to select the national leader. Selection procedures reflect processes of negotiation, compromise, conflict, and co-

'Donald Sylvan assisted in writing this section

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