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rather than making exceptions to accommodate expected deviations. Later analysis of the intercorrelations among these issue variables will disclose whether the parties adopt policy positions that are consistent with logic or image. Our coding incorporates no significant correlation between BV506 and AC506.

Basic Variable 5.07: Alignment with East/West Blocs*

To define this variable, it is useful to first define "neutralism," or "nonalignment," in the context of international politics between 1950 and 1962. According to Weiner these terms are used "loosely and interchangeably to refer to the desire of a majority of Afro-Asian nations to avoid military alliances with either side in the cold war" (1968, p. 166). Both this usage and Weiner's formal definition of neutrality, "a legal condition in which a country refrained from taking sides in a war between two or more belligerents," emphasize the military aspect of neutrality. U.S.S.R. /U.S. or East/ West alignment, too, is considered to be basically a militarily oriented variable, for economic and political ties between nations are measured in the "supranational integration" variable.

The East/West breakdown refers specifically to the bipolar international system that grew out of World War II and lasted through the 1950s. The United States is taken as the major bloc actor in the "West" and the U.S.S.R. and the major actor in the "East" Communist China not yet claiming a leadership role of its own within the Eastern bloc. The nations of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Warsaw Pact are considered to be the major components of the Western and Eastern blocs respectively.

While formal military alliances and associated aid programs constitute alignment at the extreme, lesser degrees of alignment are possible. Parties reflect their inclinations in the international arena in a variety of ways. These can be as concrete as recommending the establishment or termination of diplomatic relations with countries in the rival blocs or as subtle as the selective dissemination of praise and criticism concerning the actions of bloc leaders. We try to capture these varying expressions of favoritism in our scoring along the alignment dimension.

Operational Definition. Parties are coded according to the same practice-program matrix used for all other variables in the issue orientation variable cluster. The pro position in this variable is alignment with the East; the con position is alignment with the West.



Supports entering or maintaining formal military alliance with countries in the Eastern bloc.



Favors accepting military or economic aid, but does not advocate formal military alliance with the U.S.S.R.



Party documents or spokesmen express favoritism toward the U.S.S.R. or opposition toward the United States, although the favoritism stops short of entering alliances or agreements with the U.S.S.R. .



Eschews relations with either power or dispenses praise or blame toward both sides, without apparent prejudice, or accepts aid equally from both sides; advocates policy of neutralism, alliance with both sides.



Party documents or spokesmen express favoritism toward the United States or opposition toward the U.S.S.R., but the favoritism stops short of urging alliances or acceptance of economic aid.



Favors accepting military or economic aid, but does not advocate formal military alliances with the United States; accepts alliance but urges rapprochement with U.S.S.R.



Supports entering or maintaining formal military alliances with countries in the Western bloc.

Coding Results. By their words or actions, nearly 90 percent of our parties invited coding on their international politics. On no other issue variable except "government ownership" did we score more of the parties. This fact testifies to the penetration of international politics into the domestic sphere during our period. Judged by the distributions of parties along the scale points in Tables 6.8a and 6.8b, the Western bloc held the dominant position in the struggle for control of politics at the nation-state level, claiming unqualified commitments from approximately one-third of the parties in comparison to less than one-tenth wholly committed to the Eastern bloc. Less than 20 percent of the parties held steadfastly to neutrality between the superpowers and were coded 0. For this variable, there is virtually no correlation at all between variable code and data quality.

Basic Variable 5.08: Anticolonialism

Emerson defines "colonialism" as "the establishment and maintenance, for an extended period of time, of rule over an alien people that is separate from and subordinate to the ruling power" (1968, p. 1). Nowadays, it differs little in usage from "imperialism," which once was linked more closely with military conquest of a distant and alien people but now "is often

*This section was drafted by Donald Sylvan.

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